Socratea H.Karst., Linnaea 28: 263 (1857)

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Number of Taxa

  • 6 species

Discussion

  • Wessels Boer (1965) and MacBride (1960) included Socratea in Iriartea; however, there is a whole suite of characters separating the two (see Iriartea). Furthermore, floral biology is significantly different in the two genera (as confirmed by Henderson 1985). The separation of Metasocratea was based on a misinterpretation of the position of the embryo (see Bernal 1986). There is an expansion of the floral apex into a large truncate area opposite each sepal during stamen initiation. This pattern appears characteristic of the tribe. Pintaud and Millan (2004) describe a population of Socratea salazarii displaying flagelliform inflorescences that root at their tips. (J. Dransfield, N. Uhl, C. Asmussen, W.J. Baker, M. Harley and C. Lewis. 2008)

Biology And Ecology

Etymology

Diagnosis

  • Moderate solitary (very rarely clustered) pinnate-leaved tree palms ofhumid rain forest in Central and South America, the stems with an opencone of stilt roots; leaflets are rhomboid praemorse, sometimeslongitudinally divided to give the whole leaf an ostrich-featherappearance; fruit has apical stigmatic remains and embryo. (J. Dransfield, N. Uhl, C. Asmussen, W.J. Baker, M. Harley and C. Lewis. 2008)

Description

  • Solitary or very rarely clustered, moderate, pleonanthic, monoecioustree palms. Stems erect, conspicuously ringed with leaf scars, bearingan open cone of stout, usually densely prickly, stilt roots. Leaves ratherfew, pinnate, neatly abcising; sheaths tubular forming a well-definedcrownshaft; petiole short, adaxially channelled or flattened, abaxiallyrounded, bearing a variety of indumentum types; rachis adaxiallyangled, abaxially rounded; leaflets regularly arranged, asymmetricallydeltoid to elliptic, proximal margin entire for much of its length, distalmargin entire ca. 1/3 its length, otherwise praemorse, main ribsnumerous, radiating from the base, leaflet remaining entire or splittinglongitudinally between the ribs into narrow segments displayed indifferent planes giving the leaf a plumose appearance. Inflorescences solitary, infrafoliar, somewhat dorsiventrally compressed and erect inbud, branching to 1 order, branches pendulous when exposed,protogynous; peduncle well developed, elliptic in cross-section,winged at base; prophyll inserted near the base, short, tubular, 2-keeled, apically open, thinly coriaceous; peduncular bracts ca. 5,tubular, tips pointed, central ones larger than proximal or distal, ±flattened, eventually deciduous after anthesis; rachis ± flattened,shorter or longer than the peduncle, bearing spirally arranged,pendulous rachillae, each subtended by a minute collar-like bract;rachillae rather robust, often somewhat flattened, elongate, bearingspirally arranged, crowded triads; rachilla bracts and bracteoles scarcelyevident; staminate and pistillate flowers maturing at the same time.Staminate flowers open in bud, sepals 3, triangular, united basally in alow, complete or partially interrupted ring; petals 3, distinct, fleshy, markedly asymmetrical, lightly imbricate basally, much longer than the sepals; stamens 17–145, filaments very short, awl-shaped above expanded bases, anthers erect, basifixed, linear, acute or apiculate, latrorse; pistillode much shorter than the stamens, conical, briefly trifid. Pollen ellipsoidal, ± bi-symmetric; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine intectate, upper surface of foot layer covered by fine, dense gemmae or clavae, loosely supporting short, wide-spaced, broad-based spines; longest axis 43–50 µm [2/5]. Pistillate flowers symmetrical, much smaller than the staminate, ± 3-angled; sepals 3, rounded, strongly imbricate, dorsally thickened; petals 3, distinct, strongly imbricate, ± rounded with a minute, triangular valvate apex; staminodes 6, minute, tooth-like; gynoecium obovoid, tricarpellate, triovulate, stigmas 3, apical, fleshy, reflexed, ovules basally attached, orthotropous, one usually larger than the others. Fruit separated at maturity, ellipsoidal to subglobose with eccentrically apical stigmatic remains; epicarp minutely roughened when dry, at maturity splitting into ± distinct valves at apex, exposing the rather dry white mesocarp with included reddish sclerosomes and slender fibres, endocarp thin. Seed ± ovoid, basally attached, hilum circular, raphe branches conspicuous, numerous, sparsely anastomosing, endosperm homogeneous; embryo eccentrically apical. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid with praemorse tips. Cytology: 2n = 36. (J. Dransfield, N. Uhl, C. Asmussen, W.J. Baker, M. Harley and C. Lewis. 2008)

Anatomy

Relationships

Fossil record

Uses

Use Record

Uses

  • Socratea H.Karst.: Comercializado en mercados locales.Tronco (lanza de 15cm). Artesanal. (Alarcon, R. 1994)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsOtherStemIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Construction. (…). Floors are made of split-trunk slats (or hand-sawn boards) taken from a variety of palms, depending upon elevation. In the higher elevation gualte (Geonoma) is preferred, while in the lower elevations barrigonas (Catoblastus, Wettinia, Socratea, and Bactris) are common. (Orejuela, J.E. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousAwáColombia
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Crop in garden of household. (Salick, J. 1989)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousYaneshaPeru
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Edible palm heart. Stem use for construction. (Báez, S., and Å. Backevall. 1998)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFood additivesPalm heartIndigenousShuarEcuador
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Socratea H.Karst.: La palma es utilizada para fabricar cerbatanas, dardos, extractores de veneno. (Cayón, E., and S. Aristizábal. 1980)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingNot specifiedIndigenousEmberáColombia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryPoisoningsNot specifiedIndigenousEmberáColombia
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Palma cuyas hojas se utilizan para techar. (...). Madera construcción. (...). Construcción. Hojas. (Garzón, N.C. 1985)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Para el piso (lasicco), en cambio, generalmente se hace de tiras (dojofina) de chonta ( bo´mbo), Guilielma insignis; ( Iriartea sp.) o anacco (Socratea sp.). (…). (…). Además un rallador ( tssatssa´vo), que hecho de un trozo de raíz de una especie de palma (Socratea sp.). (Einzmann, H. 1988)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticRootIndigenousCofánEcuador
    ConstructionHousesNot specifiedIndigenousCofánEcuador
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Para matar las cucharachas. Se esparce las hojas por toda la casa. Las cucarachas mueren inmediatamente. (Alarcón, R. 1988)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalPest controlEntire leafIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Se come el cogollo. (Mundo Shuar. 1977)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousShuarEcuador
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Trunks. (Padoch, C., and W. De Jong. 1989)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemMestizoN/APeru

Bibliography

  • Alarcon, R., El taller "Etnobotánica y valoración económica de los recursos florísticos silvestres". 1994. 1994. El taller "Etnobotánica y valoración económica de los recursos florísticos silvestres".
  • Alarcón, R., Etnobotánica de los Quichuas de la Amazonia ecuatoriana. 1988. 1988. Etnobotánica de los Quichuas de la Amazonia ecuatoriana.
  • Báez, S., and Å. Backevall, Dictionary of plants used by the Shuar of Makuma and Mutints. 1998. 1998. Dictionary of plants used by the Shuar of Makuma and Mutints.
  • Cayón, E., and S. Aristizábal, Lista de plantas utilizadas por los indígenas Chami de Risaralda. 1980. 1980. Lista de plantas utilizadas por los indígenas Chami de Risaralda.
  • Dransfield, J. , Uhl, N. , Asmussen, C. , Baker, W.J. , Harley, M. & Lewis, C. 2008. Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.
  • Einzmann, H., Artesanía indígena del Ecuador: los Cofanes. 1988. 1988. Artesanía indígena del Ecuador: los Cofanes.
  • Garzón, N.C., Aproximación etnobotánica en la comunidad Guayabero de Barrancion-Guaviare. 1985. 1985. Aproximación etnobotánica en la comunidad Guayabero de Barrancion-Guaviare.
  • Mundo Shuar, Las plantas. 1977. 1977. Las plantas.
  • Orejuela, J.E., Traditional productive systems of the Awa (Cuaiquer) indians of soutwestern Colombia and neighboring Ecuador. 1992. 1992. Traditional productive systems of the Awa (Cuaiquer) indians of soutwestern Colombia and neighboring Ecuador.
  • Padoch, C., and W. De Jong, Production and profit in agroforestry: an example from the Peruvian Amazon. 1989. 1989. Production and profit in agroforestry: an example from the Peruvian Amazon.
  • Salick, J., Ecological basis of Amuesha agriculture, Peruvian upper Amazon. 1989. 1989. Ecological basis of Amuesha agriculture, Peruvian upper Amazon.