Geonoma Willd., Sp. Pl. 4: 593 (1805)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Belizepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Brazil Northeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Brazil Southpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Brazil Southeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Brazil West-Centralpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
French Guianapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Guatemalapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Guyanapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Haitipresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Honduraspresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Mexico Gulfpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Mexico Southeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Mexico Southwestpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Nicaraguapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Paraguaypresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Surinamepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Trinidad-Tobagopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Windward Is.present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B



Biology And Ecology




  • Small to moderate, solitary or clustered, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palms. Stem very short, subterranean, erect, or creeping, slender, sometimes tall, enclosed by thin leaf sheaths, becoming bare, usually cane-like, ringed with close or distant, conspicuous or inconspicuous leaf scars. Leaves pinnate, regularly or irregularly divided, or entire and bifid; sheath short, splitting opposite the petiole, margins fibrous, glabrous or variously tomentose; petiole short to long, slightly grooved or flattened adaxially, rounded abaxially, glabrous or tomentose; blade bifid, or with 2 or 3 pairs of leaflets, or irregularly divided, or nearly evenly pinnate, thin and papery or somewhat leathery, usually glabrous adaxially, glabrous, tomentose or with scales abaxially, especially along the main ribs, uniseriate hairs present or absent, midribs of single folds conspicuous, transverse veinlets not evident. Inflorescences solitary, interfoliar or infrafoliar, spicate, forked, or branched to 3(–4) orders, protandrous where known; peduncle very short to very long, glabrous or tomentose; prophyll tubular, short to long, pointed, very briefly 2-keeled laterally, membranous or leathery, glabrous or variously tomentose; peduncular bracts (0–)1(–2), short or long, deciduous or persistent, like the prophyll; rachillae straight or folded and twisted in bud, short to moderate, bearing rounded, truncate, or distally split, ± raised bracts, laterally adnate to the branch, decussate, spiral, or whorled and in definite rows, bracts closely appressed and the rachillae larger than the peduncle in diameter, or bracts more distant and the rachillae narrow, each bract subtending a triad of flowers sunken in a pit, pits without upper lip or upper lip distinct, glabrous or hairy, pit cavity glabrous or variously hairy; floral bracteoles 3, irregular, small, membranous. Staminate flowers about 1/2 exserted from the pit; sepals 3, distinct, chaffy, narrow, elongate, tips rounded, keeled or not; petals 3, connate for 2/3 their length, tips distinct, valvate; stamens (3) 6 (rarely more), filaments united with receptacle in a stalk-like base, connate in a tube above the base, free, narrow, flat, long or short distally, inflexed near the tip in bud, anthers borne at tips of the filaments, connective divided, thecae elongate, free and divaricate, or short and united, introrse; pistillode small, round, 3-lobed. Pollen ellipsoidal, usually with either slight or obvious asymmetry; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, coarsely perforate or perforate and/or micro-channelled, and rugulate, aperture margin usually slightly finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis 22–48 µm [28/59]. Pistillate flowers sunken in the pit with only the tips of the floral organs exserted; sepals 3, united basally and adnate to the receptacle, often keeled, free and imbricate distally; petals 3, connate in a soft tube, briefly adnate to receptacle basally, ending in 3, valvate, chaffy, spreading lobes; staminodes united in a tube, truncate, 6-toothed or 6-lobed, lobes, if present, spreading at anthesis, tubes basally adnate to the receptacle, and sometimes also the corolla tube; gynoecium tricarpellate but 2 carpels vestigial at anthesis, unilocular, uniovulate, ovule anatropous, style tubular, lateral to basal, elongate, ending in 3 linear stigmas, recurved at anthesis. Fruit ±globose, sometimes somewhat pointed, green, brown, or purple-black, 1-seeded, stigmatic remains basal, the rachillae often becoming brightly coloured; epicarp, thin smooth, mesocarp thin, with narrow longitudinal fibres, endocarp thin, crustaceous to membranous. Seed ± globose, hilum short, basal, raphe encircling the seed, endosperm homogeneous; embryo erect basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid. Cytology: 2n = 28. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A


Fossil record



  • (...) provides the traditional Waorani thatch.
  • (...) supplies leaves for wrapping food; the seeds provide material for beads.
  • Coaiqueres. Leaves used to wrap food.
  • Construcción de casas.
  • Construcción de casas.
  • Construcción de viviendas.
  • Construction. (…). Other trees used as natural bait include (…) a variety of palms (Geonoma and Wettinia). (…). Floors are made of split-trunk slats (or hand-sawn boards) taken from a variety of palms, depending upon elevation. In the higher elevation gualte (Geonoma) is preferred, while in the lower elevations barrigonas ( Catoblastus, Wettinia, Socratea, and Bactris) are common.
  • Da frutos como los de la sisimur (ver), que también come la pava de monte. El tallo de la palma es cuadrado, acanalado y rojozo oscuro, ésta se utilizaba para techar las casas. (...). El tronco se utiliza para leña.
  • De la fruta se extrae una leche con la que se hace una bebida, el tronco se usa para hacer el palo de escoba, la madera se usa en construcción y el fruto es alimento de animales (tatabra o sahino, guanta) y así los Chachi aprovechan y los cazan cuando estos se alimentan.
  • El fruto es comestible. La hoja se emplea para techar.
  • Es ucsha panga, la hoja se usa para fumar cuando se sale de cacería.
  • Hay varias especies, casi todas ella utilizadas en la construcción de techados. (…). Producto comercializable. (…). Hay cuatro tipos distintos de techado que difieren en las palmas empleadas, durabilidad y tiempo de preparación. (…). El método más sencillo consiste en utilizar plantas enteras de jatata, atando las hojas en manojos. Varios de estos manojos se atan a las vigas del techo (que son frecuentemente troncos de asaí) con fibra de árbol. Estos techados son de naturaleza provisional y se usan sólo cuando no hace falta un techo totalmente impermeable, por ejemplo, en refugios para el ganado. (…).
  • It is used to imporvise hunting and war spears.
  • Las hojas las utilizaban para techar el tambo.
  • Las hojas se usan para techar viviendas; cuando llueve se usa las hojas como paraguas; también para hacer paquetes y trasladar carne cazada; cortezas o troncos de tallos de uso medicinal desde el bosque a las casas.
  • Las hojas se usan para techar, cuando llueve en el bosque se amarra las hojas al tronco de un árbol y se escampa.
  • Leaves are used fro thatch.
  • Leaves used as thatch for roofs of Indian houses ( Scheelea sp., Geonoma spp., Phytelephas microcarpa, Iriartea deltoidea, Socratea exorrhiza, Welfia georgii, Catoblastus aequalis). (…). (…) Leaves used for wrapping and covering (Geonoma ssp.). (…). Fresh fruits edible (Bactris sp., Phytelephas microcarpa, Ammandra sp., Palandra aequatorialis, Aiphanes caryotaefolia, Aiphanes eggersii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Astrocaryum chambira, Astrocaryum standleyanum, Desmoncus sp., Geonoma sp.). (…). Dyes for textiles ( Synecanthus warscewiczianus, Chamaedorea sp. Geonoma sp.).
  • On top of the roof structure entire leaves of various palm species or panels composed of Geonoma spp. Are put in an imbricate manner.
  • Roofing material.
  • Se le dice en quichua macana panca, las hojas son utilizadas para tejer el techo de las casas.
  • Se utiliza para tejer/entechar, para estantilla y para trampa. Tambien sirve para tapaje en quebradas y sal vegetal para el ambíl.
  • Solo se usan las hojas de esta palma. Luego de ser cosechadas por los expertos para tejer los techos de las casas tradicionales quichua y shuar.
  • Su hoja se emplea para techar.
  • Techado de viviendas.
  • Techado de viviendas.
  • Thatch (1)
  • Thatching. (…). The leaves of several species of "palmiche" (Geonoma spp., Mejia 0003, 0101 and 0104) are occasionally used for roofing, and in one village, the use of Hyospathe sp. (Mejia 0088) or "palmichillo" was also observed.
  • The durable leaves are used to thatch houses.
  • The fruits, the size of small beads, are fragant and the Secoyas use them in arm bands as perfume.
  • Un segundo ejemplo de refinamiento lo tenemos en las especies básicas para la obtención de sal (componente básico en la preparación del tabaco líquido o ambil). (…). Luego vienen otras especies pero con espinas. Son palmas como erere, bar y komsña, jar na es la palma que más sal preduce de todas las especies. Caracterizan sus contenidos en la corteza, los cogollos y los racimos de frutas, Otras palmas reconocidas son it ma, k nena, ñek na. (…). La pepa es rica para preparar chicha y caguana, de la palma se sacan yaripa para la casa.

Use Record