Euterpe Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 28 (1823)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_83085_1.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)

Seven species from the Lesser Antilles and Central America south through Brazil to Peru and Bolivia. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)

Discussion

Diagnosis

Biology And Ecology

Uses

Description

  • Moderate to large, solitary or clustered, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palms. Stem erect, sometimes slender, obscurely to distinctly ringed with leaf scars, grey to white, base sometimes enlarged. Leaves few in crown, often spreading, pinnate; sheath elongate, tubular, forming a prominent crownshaft, smooth, variously glaucous, tomentose, or with scales, with or without a prominent, fibrous, adaxial ligule; petiole very short or absent, rarely elongate, slender, deeply concave adaxially, or flat with a central ridge, rounded abaxially, with scattered dark brown to blackish, branched scales or deciduous tomentum on both surfaces, usually denser adaxially; rachis slender, rounded abaxially, channelled adaxially near the base, distally angled, with dark brown to blackish scales more numerous adaxially; leaflets often ± pendulous, narrow, lanceolate, single-fold, tips long-attenuate, pointed, midrib conspicuous, 1 or 2 pairs of large veins also evident, deciduous tattered scales often prominent abaxially along midribs and larger veins, other elliptic scales present or absent abaxially and near the base adaxially, transverse veinlets not evident. Inflorescences axillary, infrafoliar at anthesis, erect in bud, branched to 1 order; peduncle short, often dorsiventrally compressed, covered with scales, tomentum, or hairs, minutely brown-dotted or rarely glabrous; prophyll tubular, elongate, flattened dorsiventrally, inserted obliquely near the base of the peduncle, chartaceous, with scattered sometimes black, tattered-peltate scales, or ± glabrous, margins with wide flat keels, tip usually rounded, splitting abaxially below the tip; peduncular bract about as long as or longer than the prophyll, tubular, chartaceous, with scales as on the prophyll, tip pointed, hard, a second, incomplete, rather long, pointed peduncular bract sometimes present; rachis longer than the peduncle, covered with dense white, yellow to dark red tomentum; rachillae moderate to long, often slender, becoming pendulous, usually covered with dense white, orange, or dark brownish tomentum, and bearing rather close or distant, spirally arranged bracts, the proximal somewhat elongate, pointed, the distal smaller, often rounded, each subtending a triad of flowers at the base or more distally on the rachilla a pair of staminate or a single staminate flower, the pistillate flower sunken in a pit and surrounded by 2 rounded, stiff bracteoles, one usually larger, the 2 staminate flowers of the triad in shallow indentations above the pistillate flower. Staminate flowers elongate, pointed in bud; sepals 3, distinct, broadly imbricate, irregular, rounded to ± pointed, margins often tattered; petals 3, distinct, unequal, asymmetrical, valvate, the tips with short solid points; stamens 6, filaments short, linear, sometimes wider basally, anthers elongate, sagittate, medifixed, latrorse; pistillode 3-lobed, columnar. Pollen ellipsoidal, with slight or obvious asymmetry; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, finely perforate, or perforate and micro-channelled and rugulate, aperture margin similar or slightly finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis 35–57 µm [4/8]. Pistillate flowers ovoid; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate, margins often lacerate, from ca. 1/4 to 2/3 as long as the petals; petals 3, distinct, imbricate, margins irregular, tips with solid points; staminodes usually absent (present in Euterpe luminosa); gynoecium ovoid, unilocular, uniovulate, stigmas 3 short, fleshy, recurved, ovule probably hemianatropous, laterally attached. Fruit subglobose or rarely ellipsoid, small to moderate, single-seeded, stigmatic remains lateral to subapical; epicarp smooth, minutely pebbled when dry, mesocarp rather thin with radially arranged sclereid bundles and an inner layer of thin flat fibres, endocarp thin, crustaceous, tanniniferous. Seed globose, laterally attached, hilum elongate, ± 2-lobed, raphe branches forming a network, endosperm homogeneous or rarely ruminate; embryo subbasal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid or pinnate with narrow leaflets. Cytology: 2n = 36. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)

Anatomy

Relationships

Use Record

Uses

  • Euterpe Mart.: Alimento. Fruto. Medicinal. Raíz. (…). Dentro de las prácticas medicinales las palmas también presentan un papel esencial, e este caso se encuentran 5 especies de las cuales su raíz es usada en infusiones y bebidas para la curación de la malaria, problemas con la orina y como purgantes; el cogollo de la Bacaba es usado en la curación para la picadura de alacrán. (Forero, M.C., Aspectos etnobotánicos de uso y manejo de la familia Arecaceae (palmas) en la comunidad indígena Ticuna de Santa Clara de Tarapoto, del resguardo Ticoya del municipio de Puerto Nariño, Amazonas, Colombia.. 2005 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Medicinal and VeterinaryDigestive systemRootIndigenousTikunaColombia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryUrinary systemRootIndigenousTikunaColombia
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousTikunaColombia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryDigestive systemRootIndigenousTikunaColombia
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousTikunaColombia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryUrinary systemRootIndigenousTikunaColombia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryInfections and infestationsRootIndigenousTikunaColombia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryInfections and infestationsRootIndigenousTikunaColombia
  • Euterpe Mart.: Commonly protected species. (Irvine, D., Succesion Management and Resource Distribution in an Amazonian Rain Forest. 1989 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Euterpe Mart.: El estipe entero se usa en la construcción de ranchos, especialmente para las "azoteas" o barbacoas al aire libre, tablado que hay detrás de las casas en regiones muy pantanosas para satisfacer las necesidades de eliminación; en la confección de gallineros y otras obras, y hendido, a modo de esterilla, para las paredes. Las hojas se usan a veces en el cubrimiento de chozas, y se dice que la cobertura queda muy espesa. De los frutos se prepara una bebida similar a la «leche» de Jessenia; queda de color morado, si los frutos se usan enteros, y blanca si se remueve de ellos previamente mediante frotación manual, el epicarpo. (*). (Patiño,V.M., Palmas oleaginosas de la costa colombiana del Pacífico. 1977 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/AColombia
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsNot identifiedN/AColombia
    ConstructionHousesStemNot identifiedN/AColombia
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsNot identifiedN/AColombia
    ConstructionHousesStemNot identifiedN/AColombia
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/AColombia
  • Euterpe Mart.: El fruto, el cogollo y el estípite. Con el fruto maduro, en agua tibia, se prepara chicha; cahuana y se toma como bebida regrescante o el cogollo fresco también se consume; el estípite se abre para construir el cerco de la maloca. Comestible-frutal-construcción de vivienda. Animales consumidores: El fruto es consumido por la pava colorada, la pava negra, los picones, el guaro, el cerrillo y por el puerco de monte. (La Rotta, C., P. Miraña,M. Miraña, B. Miraña,M. Miraña, and N. Yucuna, Estudio etnobotánico sobre las especies utilizadas por la comunidad indígena Miraña, Amazonas, Colombia. 1987 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsIndigenousMirañaColombia
    EnvironmentalFencesStemIndigenousMirañaColombia
    Animal FoodWildlife attractantFruitsIndigenousMirañaColombia
    Animal FoodWildlife attractantFruitsIndigenousMirañaColombia
    EnvironmentalFencesStemIndigenousMirañaColombia
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousMirañaColombia
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousMirañaColombia
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsIndigenousMirañaColombia
  • Euterpe Mart.: Los chamí comen el cogollo o churkin (palmito). De la palma se hacen virotes o dardos y extractores de veneno. Cuando se seca sirve para leña. (Cayón, E., and S. Aristizábal, Lista de plantas utilizadas por los indígenas Chami de Risaralda. 1980 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    FuelFirewoodStemIndigenousEmberáColombia
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingNot specifiedIndigenousEmberáColombia
    FuelFirewoodStemIndigenousEmberáColombia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryPoisoningsNot specifiedIndigenousEmberáColombia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryPoisoningsNot specifiedIndigenousEmberáColombia
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingNot specifiedIndigenousEmberáColombia
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousEmberáColombia
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousEmberáColombia
  • Euterpe Mart.: Los frutos de esta palma son sometidos al mismo proceso de "maduración" descrito para el milpeso. La única diferencia respecto al milpeso es que el fruto tiene muy poca carne como para chupar la pepa directamente una vez cocinado. (Ortiz, R., Uso, conocimiento y manejo de lagunos recursos naturales en el mundo Yucuna (Mirití-Paraná, Amazonas, Colombia).. 1994 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsIndigenousYucunaColombia
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsIndigenousYucunaColombia
  • Euterpe Mart.: Palm heart edible ( Prestoea sp., Euterpe spp., Iriartea deltoidea, Socratea exorrhiza, Ammandra sp.). (Balslev, H., and A. Barfod, Ecuadorean palms- an overview. 1987 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartNot identifiedN/AEcuador
  • Euterpe Mart.: Palma de unos 15 mts de alto, frutos globosos dispuestos en racimos, de color negro cuando están maduros, comestibles. Los cogollos se consumen sin ninguna preparación. De los frutos se obtiene bebida refrescante y puede dejarse fermentar para obtener saxa. (…). Palma de madera liviana para construccíon. Con las hojas se hacen los techos de las viviendas. Aún se usan cuando no se consiguen las tejas de zinc. (…). Productos comestibles. Madera construcción. (…). Cultivada. Construcción; leña, alimento. Tronco. Hojas, fruto. (Garzón, N.C., Aproximación etnobotánica en la comunidad Guayabero de Barrancion-Guaviare. 1985 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    FuelFirewoodStemIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    FuelFirewoodStemIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
  • Euterpe Mart.: Palmito / heart of palm. (...). The roof is thatched with fronds of different palms, among them Orbignya, Euterpe, Jessenia, Prestoea and Chalar (Geonoma). (Orejuela, J.E., Traditional productive systems of the Awa (Cuaiquer) indians of soutwestern Colombia and neighboring Ecuador. 1992 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousAwáColombia
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousAwáColombia
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousAwáColombia
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousAwáColombia
  • Euterpe Mart.: Planta comestible recolectada. Parte comestible, corazón. (Chirif, A., Salud y nutrición en sociedades nativas. 1978 (as Euterpe Mart.))
  • Euterpe Mart.: Planta comestible recolectada. Parte comestible, corazón. (Chirif, A., Salud y nutrición en sociedades nativas. 1978 (as Euterpe Mart.))
  • Euterpe Mart.: Planta comestible recolectada. Parte comestible, fruto. (Chirif, A., Salud y nutrición en sociedades nativas. 1978 (as Euterpe Mart.))
  • Euterpe Mart.: Planta semi-cultivadas (protegidas). Parte comestible, frutos, hojas. (Chirif, A., Salud y nutrición en sociedades nativas. 1978 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodEntire leafIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    Human FoodFoodEntire leafIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousAguarunaPeru
  • Euterpe Mart.: Refresco. (Vasquez, R., and A.H. Gentry, Use and misuse of forest-harvested fruits in the Iquitos area. 1989 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Euterpe Mart.: The dead trunks of all palm trees, including Ireartea, Euterpe, Mauritia, and Jessenia, all attract palm weevils. (…). The leaflets of Orbygnia, Euterpe, and Astrocaryum are used to weave floor mats and fans, using a number of differen weave types. (Alexiades, M.N., Ethnobotany of the Ese Ejja: plants, health, and change in an amazonian society. 1999 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    OtherN/AStemIndigenousEse EjjaBolivia
    OtherN/AStemIndigenousEse EjjaPeru
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticEntire leafIndigenousEse EjjaPeru
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticEntire leafIndigenousEse EjjaBolivia
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticEntire leafIndigenousEse EjjaBolivia
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticEntire leafIndigenousEse EjjaPeru
    OtherN/AStemIndigenousEse EjjaBolivia
    OtherN/AStemIndigenousEse EjjaPeru
  • Euterpe Mart.: The root of this palm is crushed and boiled and the decotion is take thrice daily to treat malarian fever. (Schultes, R.E., and R.F. Raffauf, The healing forest- Medicinal and toxic plants of the Northwest Amazonia. 1990 (as Euterpe Mart.))
  • Euterpe Mart.: The thin mesocarp, triturated with water, forms a creamy sweetish beverage similar to that from fruits of Euterpe (Spruce). (Macbride, J.F., Flora of Peru Vol. XIII Part 1 Nº 2. 1960 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Euterpe Mart.: Un segundo ejemplo de refinamiento lo tenemos en las especies básicas para la obtención de sal (componente básico en la preparación del tabaco líquido o ambil). (…). Luego vienen otras especies pero con espinas. Son palmas como erere, bar y komsña, jar na es la palma que más sal preduce de todas las especies. Caracterizan sus contenidos en la corteza, los cogollos y los racimos de frutas, Otras palmas reconocidas son it ma, k nena, ñek na. (…). La pepa es rica para preparar chicha y caguana, de la palma se sacan yaripa para la casa. (Garzón, C., and V. Macuritofe, La noche, las plantas y sus sueños: Aproximación al conocimiento botánico en una cultura amazónica. 1992 (as Euterpe Mart.))
  • Euterpe Mart.: Uso alimenticio. Frutos. (Descola, P., La selva culta- Simbolismo y praxis en la ecología de los Achuar. 1989 (as Euterpe Mart.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousAchuarEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousAchuarEcuador

Bibliography

A. J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae