Wallichia gracilis Becc., Webbia 3: 211 (1910)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
China South-Centralpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
China Southeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Hainanpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Vietnampresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
China (Guangxi, Yunnan) and Vietnam (Central, Northern), and probably Lao. (Henderson, A.J., A Revision of Wallichia (Palmae) in Taiwania 52(1). 2007)A


  • Beccari (1910) listed three specimens of W. gracilis, one of which, with staminate flowers, is chosen as lectotype. Beccari (1910) did not describe the number of stamens, nor the form of the staminate sepals because the flowers on Balansa 4362 are old and without stamens. Burret (1937), in describing W. chinensis, recorded 6-9 stamens. Beccari (1910) cited two paratypes - Henry 12331 and Henry 10411 – which are both here identified as W. caryotoides. Pinnae shape of Wallichia gracilis is similar to that of W. caryotoides. However, both staminate and pistillate rachillae of W. gracilis are considerably shorter than those of W. caryotoides. There is, however, variation in inflorescence length within W. gracilis, and both staminate and pistillate inflorescences range from short and compact to elongate. (Henderson, A.J., A Revision of Wallichia (Palmae) in Taiwania 52(1). 2007)A

Biology And Ecology

Common Name


  • Stems clustered, to 1.5 m tall, 2-2.5 cm diameter, stems bearing staminate and pistillate inflorescences about equal in length. Leaves arranged spirally; sheaths to 40 cm long, fibrous, with black fibers; petioles 1-1.7 m long; rachis 0.45-1.2 m long; pinnae 5-7 per side of rachis, regularly arranged, spreading in the same plane, pinnae from middle of leaf 30-40 cm long, 6-9 cm wide, lanceolate, with two lobes. Inflorescences unisexual, subtended by smaller leaves, staminate or pistillate terminal; staminate inflorescences 12-25 cm long, pendulous; prophyll to 4 cm long; peduncle to 12 cm long; peduncular bracts to 8, open and not sheathing the peduncle; rachillae numerous, 0.5-1.5 cm long, 0.8 mm diameter, short and crowded on the rachis; staminate flowers to 5 mm long; sepals 1 mm long, connate into a cupular, lobed calyx, the lobes free for about half their length, at least one pair of lobes briefly imbricate; petals to 5 mm long, white; stamens 6-7; pistillate inflorescences to 35 cm long, pendulous; prophyll to 4 cm long; peduncle to 20 cm long; peduncular bracts to 8, open and not sheathing the peduncle; rachillae numerous, to 6 cm long, 2 mm diameter; pistillate flowers 2 mm long; sepals 1.5 mm long; petals 2 mm long; gynoecium 2 mm long; fruits ovoid to ellipsoid, to 1.5 cm long, to 1.0 cm diameter, yellow. (Henderson, A.J., A Revision of Wallichia (Palmae) in Taiwania 52(1). 2007)A

Materials Examined

  • CHINA. Guangxi: Long Jing, 12 Dec 1958, Qing 14604 (IBK, IBSC); Daqingshan, Long Jing, 2 Jul 1957, Qing 12955 (IBK, IBSC); Jingxi, 23 Aug 1935, Ko 55593 (IBSC); same locality, 23 Aug 1935, Peng 297155593 (IBSC); Long Jin, Da Qing Shan, Ke Kang, 15 Jun 1957, Tung 12621 (IBK, IBSC, KUN); Long Jin, Da Qing Shan, Gan Men, 2 Jun 1957, Tung 12155 (KUN); Longzhou, 25 Jun 1935, Xipeng 55394 (IBK, IBSC). Yunnan: MaLiPo, Nan Wen He, at the foot of Tao Jun Shan, 1 Jun 1983, Chen 18977 (HITBC); MaLiPo, Tung-ting, 1200-1800 m, 23 Nov 1947, Feng 13616 (A, KUN); Jin Ping, 15 Apr 1958, Huang 557 (KUN); He Kou, Nan E, 6 Jul 1953, Liu 189 (KUN); MaLiPo, Kwan-Kao, 15 Feb 1940, Wang 86913 (IBK, KUN); Si-chou, Fa-doe, 15 Feb 1939, Wang 85736 (KUN). VIETNAM. Cao Bang: Tra Linh District, Quoc Toan, Lung Tao, 22°45’N, 106°19’E, 14 Dec 1998, Hiep cbl1237/1 (HN). Bac Kan: Cho Don District, Bang Lung, 13 May 2000, Hach cd10 (HN). Ha Tay: Ba Vi, ca. 800 m, 19 Jan 1886, Balansa 4369 (P). Ha Tinh: Huong Son District, Nga Doi, 18°29’N, 105°13’E, 20 May 1998, Hiep et al. 773 (HN, K). Hoa Binh: Da Bac District, Phu Canh mountain, 20°55’N, 105°02’E, 30 Mar 2001, Hiep et al. hal452 (HN). Kon Tum: Distr. Dak Glay, ca. 15-18 km NW of Dak Glay, near Mang Khen (Dak Che) village, 1000 m, 24 Nov 1995, Averyanov et al. vh1953 (A, AAU, P). Lang Son: Dong Dang, Feb 1885, Balansa 519 (P). Lao Cai: Van Ban District, Nam Xe Municipality, Mu stream, 22°01’N, 104°00’E, 815-953 m, Harder et al. 7032 (HN). Nghe An: Que Phong, Hanh Dich, 20 Dec 2002, Anon s. n. (HN). Ninh Bihn: Cuc Phuong National Park, 20°21’N, 105°35’E, 330 m, Soejarto et al. 10394 (A, HN); same locality, 30 Jul 1999, Nguyen Manh Cuong et al. 308 (HN); same locality, 9 Jul 1971, Giang Dam 326 (HN); same locality, 23 Feb 1971, Hop 70cp (HN). Phu Tho: Xuan Son, 1 Jul 2003, Phuong 6214 (HN). Quang Bihn: Distr. Minh Hoa, 72 km WNW of Dong Hoi, Municipality Thong Hoa, vicinity of Yen Son village, 17°40’N, 105°57’E, 200 m, 18 Apr 1997, Averyanov et al. 4805 (AAU, HN, MO). Quang Ninh: Taai Wong Mo Shan and vicinity, Chan Uk Village near Chuk-phai, Hai-coi, 11-20 May 1939, Tsang 29051 (A, K, IBSC, P). (Henderson, A.J., A Revision of Wallichia (Palmae) in Taiwania 52(1). 2007)A