Attalea Kunth, Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 309 (1816)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Brazil North present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Brazil Northeast present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Brazil South present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Brazil Southeast present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Brazil West-Central present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Colombia present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Costa Rica present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
El Salvador present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
French Guiana present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Guatemala present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Honduras present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Mexico Gulf present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Mexico Southeast present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Mexico Southwest present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Nicaragua present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Paraguay present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Suriname present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Trinidad-Tobago present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B
Venezuela present (World Checklist of Arecaceae )B

Discussion

  • Opinion is divided as to both the number of genera and species. Glassman (1999) recognises four genera, Attalea, Scheelea, Orbignya and Maximiliana. These four genera were also recognised in the first edition of Genera Palmarum. As the palms have become better known in the field and more herbarium material has accumulated, the characters of the staminate flowers used to differentiate the genera seem increasingly unreliable. Intermediate conditions occur (which Glassman [1999] attributes to intergeneric hybridisation) and the form of the staminate flower seems not be correlated with any other varying characters. Henderson (1995) and Henderson et al. (1995) included all genera in Attalea, arguing convincingly that the previously recognised genera are untenable. This broad generic approach is followed here. At the species level, Glassman (1999) recognises 66 species whereas Henderson et al. (1995) recognise 29. There is clearly scope for more detailed revisionary taxonomic work before a clear understanding of the species limits is reached. Attalea crassispatha from Haiti was used by O.F. Cook as the basis of his invalidly published genus Bornoa (Cook 1939a). He also published the invalid names Temenia (Cook 1939a) and Ethnora (Cook 1940), both for Attalea maripa, and Heptantra, for Attalea speciosa (Cook 1939a). Three intergeneric hybrid names have been published: Markleya Bondar (Arch. Jard. Bot. Rio de Janeiro 15: 50 [1957]) for a hybrid between Orbignya phalerata and Maximiliana maripa; Maximbignya Glassman (Illinois Biol. Monogr. 59: 199 [1999]) as an explicit hybrid name (Maximbignya dahlgreniana [Bondar] Glassman); and Attabignya Balick (A.B. Anderson and Med.-Costa, Brittonia 39: 27 [1987]) for a hybrid between Attalea compta and Orbignya oleifera (namely Attabignya minarum Balick et al.). With the subsuming of all genera in Attalea, new combinations for these hybrids in Attalea were published by Zona (2002b). Blue-throated Macaws (Ara glaucogularis) feed on the mesocarp of Attalea phalerata fruit (Yamashita and de Barros 1997). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Diagnosis

Biology And Ecology

Etymology

Uses

Description

  • Small to massive, solitary, acaulescent or erect, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palms. Stem subterranean to tall, usually becoming bare, obliquely marked with leaf scars. Leaves massive, pinnate, marcescent; sheath thick, finely or coarsely fibrous (in Attalea funifera producing piassava); petiole lacking or short to elongate, adaxially channelled, abaxially rounded, variously tomentose, rachis adaxially channelled near the base, distally angled, abaxially rounded or flattened, abaxially variously tomentose; leaflets inserted on the lateral faces or in shallow grooves; leaflets numerous, linear-lanceolate, single-fold, regularly arranged or in clusters of 2–5, irregularly lobed at the tips, caducous scales abundant along the leaflet margins exposed in the sword leaf, midrib prominent, other longitudinal veins rather indistinct, transverse veinlets abundant, conspicuous. Inflorescences solitary, interfoliar, ± erect or becoming pendulous, entirely staminate, entirely pistillate, or with flowers of both sexes, branched to 1 order or branches short and flowers appearing ± sessile on the main axis; peduncle short to long; prophyll obscured by leaf sheaths and not known, peduncular bract tubular, entirely enclosing the inflorescence in bud with a short to long solid beak, splitting abaxially, expanding and usually becoming cowl-like, thick and woody, abaxially deeply grooved, adaxially glabrous, abaxially densely tomentose, long persistent, subsequent peduncular bracts small, incomplete, triangular, ± coriaceous; rachis shorter or longer than the peduncle, bearing spirally or unilaterally arranged rachillae, each subtended by a short triangular bract; staminate rachillae with a short to long basal bare portion, above which bearing paired or solitary flowers, spirally arranged (rarely) or in 2 rows on one side, glabrous or floccose-tomentose, bisexual rachillae of two types, either similar to the staminate but bearing a few basal pistillate flowers or bearing 1 to several triads with a short slender apical portion bearing fertile or sterile staminate flowers, in the putative pistillate rachillae lacking all trace of staminate flowers at maturity. Staminate flowers asymmetrical; sepals 3, distinct, triangular, very small, sometimes slightly imbricate basally; petals 3, distinct, much longer than the sepals, ovate-triangular, acute, valvate, or terete and scarcely valvate, or terete basally and distally expanded into a triangular ± valvate limb; stamens 3–75, usually much shorter, rarely much longer than the petals, filaments slender, short to long, anthers ± straight to twisted and coiled, dorsifixed or rarely medifixed, sometimes sagittate basally, introrse or latrose; pistillode minute or absent. Pollen ellipsoidal, usually with either slight or obvious asymmetry, occasionally pyriform, trichotomosulcate pollen also present; aperture a distal sulcus or trichotomosulcus; ectexine tectate, finely to coarsely perforate, finely to coarsely perforate and micro-channelled, or perforate-rugulate or, unusually, tectate gemmate, aperture margin slightly finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis 32–85 µm [17/71]. Pistillate flowers very much larger than the staminate, generally ovoid; sepals 3, distinct, ± triangular, broadly imbricate, leathery; petals 3, distinct, rounded or ± triangular with triangular tips, glabrous or tomentose; staminodal ring large, coriaceous, tomentose; gynoecium of 3–several connate carpels, ovoid or obpyriform, style tapering, stigmatic lobes equal in number to the carpels, linear, reflexed at anthesis, ovules 1 per carpel, basal, form unknown. Fruit ± ovoid, sometimes asymmetrical, 1–several seeded, with a short to moderate beak and apical stigmatic remains, perianth and staminodal ring persistent and enlarging; epicarp minutely grooved, bearing scales, mesocarp usually fleshy and fibrous, endocarp very thick, stony, smooth without or closely grooved, often with included fibres, the pores subbasal, deeply impressed, ?always. Seed ellipsoidal or laterally somewhat flattened, basally attached with fine anastomosing raphe bundles, endosperm homogeneous, solid (?always); embryo basal. Germination remote-tubular; eophyll entire, lanceolate. Cytology: 2n = 32. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Anatomy

Fossil record

Relationships

Use

  • Alimento. Fruto. Mojojoí. Artesanias. Semilla. Construcción. Hoja.
  • Burned leaves yield salt. Present in young fallows.
  • Conocida en quichua como inayu, el tronco es utilizado para hacer camilla de acompañante. (...). Se sacan de las hojas flechas para cerbatana.
  • Construcción de viviendas.
  • Construction. (...). The roof is thatched with fronds of different palms, among them Orbignya, Euterpe, Jessenia, Prestoea and Chalar (Geonoma).
  • Construction. Food. Present in young fallows.
  • Crop in garden of household.
  • Cultivated for its edible fruits.
  • Del raquis de las grandes hojas sé sacan virotes para las cerbatanas y se hacen estarillas para los lechos y para la pesca. La semilla cortada por la base se emplea: como colgante en los collares femeninos. Su chonta es comestible. Su "wancuji" o espata seca se usa como recogedor de basura.
  • Edible fruit.
  • En los territorios amazónicos se utilizan las hojas de esta palmera para cubrir alimentos y para elaborar canastos de emergencia.
  • En quichua es conocida como lucata, las hojas son utilizadas para tejer el techo de las casas, el cual puede durar hasta diez años.
  • Food. Construction. (…). Other construction materials include roof thatch produced from Phytelephas macrocarpa and Scheelea sp. (Palmae) and flooring from Iriartea deltoidea and Socratea exorrhiza (Palmae).
  • Fruto seco: cosido dentro de una bolsita de tela, se lleva en el pecho como escapulario preventivo contra enfermedades - entra en la preparación de mesas.
  • Granos: frescos o secos, el aceite extraido por compresión, friccionando sobre el cuero cabelludo, embellece la cabellera e impide la caída prematura de los cabellos. (...). Savia del tronco: fresca, como vermífugo.
  • Grubs are extracted from the seed and used as a fish bait. The leaves are used for thatch.
  • La curumuta es una de las especies más utilizadas como oleaginosas entre las palmas. (...). Derribada la palma, los campesinos le hacen un pozuelo cerca del cogollo y de él sacan vino de palma, muchos días.
  • La hoja se utiliza para fabricar los techos de las viviendas. El fruto es comestible sin previa preparación.
  • Leaves used as thatch for roofs of Indian houses (Scheelea sp., Geonoma spp., Phytelephas microcarpa, Iriartea deltoidea, Socratea exorrhiza, Welfia georgii, Catoblastus aequalis). (…). Beetle larvae collected from stem or fruits (Bactris gasipaes, Scheelea sp.).
  • Oil extraction from fruits ( Elaeis guineensis, Jessenia bataua, Oenocarpus mapora, Attalea sp.)
  • Palma con cuyas hojas se construyen casas improvisadas de pesca en la playa. (...). Madera construcción. (...). Techado. Hojas.
  • Palmera acaule de grandes hojas pinnadas de hasta 4 m. de longitud y que corrientemente, se utilizan para cubrir la parte más elevada del techo de las viviendas, tejiéndolas en "cumbreras". Sus frutos son pequeños y el endospermo inmaturo de las semillas es comestible, teniendo sabor parecido al de coco. Con sus hojas se tejen también "capillejos" o cestas improvisadas para transportar la caza cobrada o "mitayo".
  • Planta comestible recolectada. Parte comestible, corazón.
  • Planta comestible recolectada. Parte comestible, corazón.
  • Producto empleado en la alimentación. Frutales y otros vegetales.
  • Se comen su fruto, chonta y zures.
  • Se consume el endosperma inmaturo oleoso.
  • Su cogollo es comestible, su madera sirve para cercos de casas. Cría zures .
  • Sus frutos son apetecidos por su alto contenido energético.
  • Techado de viviendas.
  • Techado de viviendas. Uso alimenticio. Arbol de espera para la caza.
  • The kernel of the seed is eaten raw.
  • Women build barriers with the leaves of Orbygnia, Attalea or some other large palm, trapping the fish on one end of the swamp. (...). Common bait includes earthworms and several larvae, including Curculionid palm weevils from the seeds of Attalea.
  • Women build barriers with the leaves of Orbygnia, Attalea or some other large palm, trapping the fish on one end of the swamp. (…). The leaflets of Orbygnia, Euterpe, and Astrocaryum are used to weave floor mats and fans, using a number of differen weave types.

Use Record

Uses