Livistona concinna Dowe & Barfod, Austrobaileya 6: 166 (2001)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Queenslandpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Australia. Queensland. On Flinders Is, Kennedy R. and tributaries, Barrett Ck, north of Cooktown, and Archer Point. (Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Habitat

  • In seasonally moist open forest, seasonally inundated Melaleuca swamp, along creek and river banks, and at mangrove margins in non-saline environments at low elevations, 0-100 m alt. Soils are usually alluvial; grows with Corypha utan in the Kennedy R. area and with L. muelleri in the vicinity of Cooktown. Flowers Dec-Mar; fruits Apr-Oct. Fire regularly occurs in most populations. (Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Discussion

  • This taxon was placed tentatively under L. drudei by Rodd (1998), who cited three specimens, Irvine 2204 & 2205, and Hind 4594 that were collected in the distributional range of L. concinna. The latter consists of a fallen dead leaf and old infructescence. Dowe and Barfod (2001) described L. concinna based on Dowe 607, and named it in reference to the neat and regular appearance of the petioles in the crown. The species had been variously known as 'Livistona sp. Cooktown', 'Kennedy River Livistona' and 'Cooktown Fan Palm' in informal accounts (Irvine, 1984; Jones, 1996; Tucker, 1988). Livistona concinna is a large dioecious canopy palm to 30 m tall; leaves are large and regularly segmented; segment apices are pendulous, and with a bifurcate cleft to 41% of the segment length; the inflorescences are unbranched, not extending beyond the limit of the crown; male inflorescences to 180 cm long, branched to 4 orders, and with up to 9 partial inflorescences; female inflorescences to 250 cm long, branched to 5 orders, and with up to 9 partial inflorescences; bracts are tightly tubular; flowers are white to cream; fruit are globose, to 12 mm diam., and shiny black at maturity. (Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Common Name

Description

  • Dioecious palm. Trunk to 30 m tall, 24-35 cm dbh, leaf scars raised; internodes narrow; grey, petiole stubs not persistent. Leaves 50-65 in a globose to conical crown; petioles 120-300 cm long, glabrous, green throughout, 5-11 cm wide proximally, 2.2-3.5 cm wide in mid area, ca 2.8 mm wide distally, triangular in cross-section, adaxially moderately ridged, margins with solitary symmetric or retrorsely or latrorsely curved, black spines 3-5 mm long congested in the proximal portion, distal margin unarmed, sharp, slightly winged; leaf-base fibres not prominent, coarse, persistent; lamina costapalmate, regularly segmented, subcircular in outline, glabrous, adaxially midgreen, abaxially slightly lighter green, glossy on both surfaces, nonwaxy, subcircular in outline, 155-165 cm long, ca 200 cm wide, undulate; lamina divided for ca 60% of its length, with 60-78 segments, depth of apical cleft ca 41% of the segment length, apical lobes acuminate, filamentous, pendulous; hastula raised, sharp, papery on the margins; parallel veins 9-10 each side of midrib; transverse veins thinner than parallel veins. Inflorescences unbranched at the base, sexually dimorphic; nonfruit bearing (functionally male) inflorescences 120-180 cm long, not extending beyond the limit of the crown, branched to 4 orders, slightly curved with 8-9 partial inflorescences; peduncle 25 mm wide, 10 mm thick, glabrous; fruit bearing (functionally female) inflorescences 160-250 cm long, branched to 5 orders, slightly curved, held horizontal to semi-pendulous with 8-9 partial inflorescences; peduncle ca 30 mm wide; peduncular bract(s) lacking; prophyll 27-35 cm long, glabrous; rachis bracts 30-50 cm long, tightly tubular, not disintegrating into open fibres but remaining intact with age, glabrous, apically acute, margins entire, lateral splits uneven, one ca twice as deep as the other; rachillae 5-20 cm long, glabrous. Flowers, male and female similar in gross morphology, solitary or in clusters of 2-4, 1.6-2 mm high and 1.5-2 mm wide, white to cream; sepals basally fused, cupular, 3-lobed, lobes triangular, margins hyaline, to ca 1.5 mm high, apices acute; petals triangular, slightly asymmetric, 2.0- 2.2 mm long, 1.8-2 mm wide at the base, apex acute; stamen ca 1 mm high, filament subulate, connective 0.2 mm long; carpels ca 1 mm high. Fruit globose, 9-12 mm diam., shiny black; stigmatic remains subapical; epicarp smooth, with scattered lenticellular pores, drying slightly rugose; suture line extends for about ¾ the length of the fruit; mesocarp ca 1 mm wide, moist, oily, gritty; endocarp thin, crustaceous, light brown, tessellate, 0.1- 0.2 mm wide; pedicel to 2 mm long. Seed globose to subglobose; intrusion extends to half or less of the width of the seed, contorted; embryo lateral to sublateral, ca 2 mm long. Eophyll 5-ribbed. (Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Materials Examined

  • Specimens examined: AUSTRALIA: Queensland. Lakefield NP, Kennedy Bend, 15°50'S, 144°15'E, 50 m, Dowe 415 with Smith (JCT); Lakefield NP, Twelve Mile Waterhole, Dowe 606 with Barfod (BRI, K, JCT); Kennedy R., 5.5 km N of New Laura Stn, 15°27'S, 144°18'E, 50 m alt., riparian forest, Irvine 2204 & 2205 (QRS); near Cooktown airport, Barrett Ck, Gray 2764 (QRS); ca 5 km N of Cooktown Airport, Barrett Ck, 15°25'S, 145°11'E, 5 m alt., Dowe 607 (AAU, BRI holotype, K, QRS); 3.3 km NE of Cooktown Airport, Barrett Ck, NW boundary, 15°25'S, 145°12'E, 0 m alt, riparian evergreen mesophyll vine forest bordering mangroves, Irvine 2178, 2179 & 2180 (QRS); 16 km N of Cooktown, Barrett Ck, Dowe 604 with Barfod (BRI, JCT, K); Endeavour R., opposite the SW corner of the Cooktown Airport, 15°27'S, 145°11'E, 3 m alt., Irvine 2181 (QRS); 3.3 km off main road at N side of Cooktown Airport, Hind 4594 with Hill & Healy (NSW); Cooktown, N side of Endeavour R., near airport, Dowe 253 (JCT).
    Specimens from cultivated material: Australia: Queensland, Cooktown, Anzac Park, Dowe 252 (BRI, FTG, JCT); Queensland, Townsville, Anderson Park Botanic Gardens, Dowe s.n. (JCT). (Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A