Orania paraguanensis Becc., Webbia 1: 335 (1905)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Borneo present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Philippines present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Palawan Island, Philippines Archipelago and Banguey Island off the coast of Sabah. Moore (1965) mentioned the presence of this species in mainland Sabah itself - somewhere near Marudi Bay - unfortunately no herbarium specimens are known to exist and the record thus is based on Moore's observation. This species has never been seen in other parts of Borneo. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Habitat

  • Lowland tropical rainforest. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Discussion

  • One specimen (Podzorski 765) has inflorescence branching to 3 orders; however, the rest of the characters match the description of Orania paraguanensis - including the pinnate eophyll. Prior to this study O. paraguanensis was only known from Palawan. It is now known to occur on Banguey Island (now Banggi Island) just off the coast of Sabah and presumably in Sabah itself - somewhere near Marudi (present day Marudi) Bay (Moore 1965). So now there are two species found in Borneo, O. paraguanensis and O. sylvicola. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Conservation

  • Critically endangered (CR B2a, b). The palm is known from just three localities in Palawan and one in Sabah. We know nothing of its status in Sabah. In Palawan the forest where it grows is subject to intense pressure from mining and land clearance. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Common Name

  • Banga (Tangkauarin). (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Etymology

  • From Paragua, Spanish name for Palawan, an island in the Philippines Archipelago. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Uses

  • Leaves are used for house thatching, ripe fruits are said to be eaten by wild pigs. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Description

  • Large palm. Trunk c. 18 - 20 m tall, c. 25 - 30 cm diam. Leaves spirally arranged, c. 3 - 4 m long; rachis with c. 2.4 - 3 cm diam. in the middle, glabrous or rarely with red-brown tomentum; leaflets elongate lanceolate, regularly arranged leaflets held in one plane, 60 - 70 in each side of rachis, leaflets c. 6 cm distant, the proximal leaflets not in a group, the most proximal not the smallest, c. 97 - 150 cm long, 4.5 - 6 cm wide, adaxial surface glabrous, midrib thick, with thin red-brown tomentum, other ribs slender, glabrous, abaxial surface with dense white indumentum, midrib thicker than adaxial, with thin red-brown tomentum, other ribs slender, glabrous. Inflorescence spreading, branching to 2 orders, rarely to 3 orders (Podzorski 765), glabrous or with thin red-brown tomentum, robust; first order branch c. 68 - 70 cm long; rachillae thick, c. 35 - 55 cm long, bearing 63 - 100 flower clusters, bearing triads in the proximal 1/5 - 2/5 part, the basal c. 2.5 - 3.5 cm devoid of flowers, triads c. 2 - 2.5 cm distant, rachilla glabrous, with conspicuously pulvinate base. Staminate flowers with calyx of 3 united minute sepals; corolla with 3 free petals, c. 8 mm long, 1.8 - 2 mm wide; stamens always 6, filaments always free, dark brown, c. 0.8 - 0.9 mm long, anthers elongate-lanceolate, pale creamy yellow, 6.5 - 8 mm long; pistillodes absent. Pistillate flowers with calyx of 3 united sepals, c. 1 mm long; corolla of 3 free petals, c. 4 - 6 mm long, 3 - 4 mm wide; staminodes 6, uniform, about ΒΌ length of gynoecium; gynoecium dark-brown, 2 - 5 mmlong, 1.5 - 4 mm wide, stigma of 3 elongate lobes, c. 0.8 - 0.9 mm long. Fruit globose or bilobed, c. 3.6 - 5 cm diam., dull green when young, yellowish green when mature, stigmatic remains subbasal; epicarp smooth, c. 1 mm thick; mesocarp fibrous, c. 3 - 4 mm thick; endocarp hard, red-brown, c. 0.8 - 1 mm thick; testa thinner than endocarp; endosperm, white or creamy white, c. 2.75 - 3.5 cm diam., with hollow c. 1 cm diam. Embryo placed below the middle line of seed. Eophyll pinnate. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Materials Examined

  • PHILIPPINES. Palawan: Separation point, Feb. 1903, Merrill 869 (FI! holotype); Taytay, May 1913, Merrill 1316 (BO!, FI! paratype, L!); Taytay, May 1913, Merrill 9269 (FI! paratype, K!); July - Aug. 1925, A. Cenabre FB29998 (BO!, K!); Tangkauarin Area, 5 - 21 March 1984, D. A. Madulid 1017 (K!, L!); Lake Mangueo, Danao, valley of stream leading into NNW bay of lake, 7 April 1984, A. C. Podzorski 765 (K!, L!). MALAYSIA. East Malaysia. Sabah: Banguey Island, July - Sept. 1923, P. Castro & F. Melegrito 1495 (BO!, K!). (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Bibliography

    A. A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae