Neonicholsonia Dammer, Gard. Chron. 1901(2): 178 (1901)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Honduraspresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Nicaraguapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B





  • Small, acaulescent or short, solitary (?always), unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palm. Stem rhizomatous, or very short, sheathed by leaf bases. Leaves pinnate; sheaths short, thin, fibrous, opening opposite the petiole, not forming a crownshaft; petiole moderate, slender, 4-sided; Inflorescences solitary, interfoliar, spicate; peduncle very long, slender; rachis 4-sided basally, distally angled adaxially, rounded abaxially, prophyll short, 2-keeled laterally, splitting apically; peduncular bract glabrous; leaflets lanceolate or linear, rather short, tapering to a point, much longer than the prophyll, terete, slender, beaked, splitting opposite to subopposite, single-fold, distal pair sometimes united basally, abaxially; flower-bearing portion also elongate but shorter than the thin and papery, adaxially glabrous, abaxially lightly waxy-tomentose, peduncle, densely hairy becoming glabrous, bearing spirally arranged, midrib prominent, transverse veinlets not evident or visible and short. closely crowded, shallow, pointed bracts each subtending a triad basally and pairs of or single staminate flowers distally; floral bracteoles conspicuous, shallow, pointed, the outer markedly larger than the inner. Staminate flowers lateral to the pistillate, somewhat variable, ovoid, curved in bud; sepals 3, basally connate for 1/2 their length in a short erect cupule with 3 long, narrow, pointed tips, keeled or not; petals 3, distinct, valvate, about twice as long as the sepals, striate, grooved adaxially, narrow or rather broad, tips thickened; stamens 6, distinct or briefly connate basally, filaments awl-shaped, somewhat enlarged basally, antesepalous filaments shorter, anthers elongate, medifixed, basally ± sagittate, versatile, latrorse, connective ± prolonged in a tip; pistillode short or slender and elongate, trifid apically or throughout. Pollen ellipsoidal, with slight or obvious asymmetry; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine semitectate, coarsely foveolate-reticulate or reticulate, aperture margin slightly coarsely perforate or foveolate; infratectum columellate; longest axis 55–62 µm [1/1]. Pistillate flowers ovoid; sepals 3, distinct, partially imbricate, margins somewhat fringed, tips pointed, striate; petals like the sepals but tips thickened, valvate; staminodes lacking; gynoecium ovoid, unilocular, uniovulate, style not evident, stigma with 3 fleshy lobes, briefly reflexed, papillose adaxially, ovule basally attached, form unknown. Fruit ovoid, black when mature, irregular, remnants of 2 abortive carpels present, stigmatic remains apical to subapical forming a distinct beak; epicarp thin, smooth, mesocarp thin, composed of large, flat fibres, endocarp thin, crustaceous. Seed globose, hilum basal, raphe branches few, large, deeply sunken making the endosperm ruminate peripherally; embryo large, basal to subbasal. Germination adjacent ligular; eophyll bifid, the tips further divided. Cytology: 2n = 36. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A


Fossil record