Geonoma stricta (Poit.) Kunth, Enum. Pl. 3: 232 (1841)

Primary tabs

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
French Guianapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Guyanapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Surinamepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A

Discussion

  • Taxonomic notes: - Geonoma stricta is a member of the G. stricta clade, within which it is most closely related to G. aspidiifolia, G. oligoclona, and G. santanderensis. It differs from these three species in several character states, most obviously in its yellowish and smooth internodes. It is an extremely complicated species, treated in the past as either one species with several varieties (e.g., Henderson, 1995) or several species (e.g., Wessels Boer, 1968). Henderson and Martins (2002), in a morphometric study of this species, concluded that the varietal classification proposed by Henderson (1995) was not supported. However, these authors used only quantitative variables. With more specimens, and an analysis of both quantitative variables and qualitative traits, as well as geography, some resolution is possible, as discussed below.

    Subspecific variation: - Six traits (stem branching, stem type, leaf division, adaxial veins, inflorescence branching, staminate flowers) vary within this species. For stem type, only one of 390 specimens is scored as not cane-like, and this and stem branching and leaf division are not used in the following analyses. There is no correspondence between geography and the three remaining traits (adaxial veins, inflorescence branching, staminate flowers). Geonoma stricta is widespread across the Amazon region and beyond. However, there are gaps in its distribution, and G. stricta occurs in four separate areas?the Pacific coast of Colombia (Chocó), the Central Cordillera in Colombia (Antioquia), the central and western Amazon region and adjacent sub-Andean regions, and the Guianas and adjacent Brazil (Amapá). Specimens from these four regions are analyzed separately. There are only three specimens from the Pacific coast of Colombia (Chocó), too few to test for differences. However, these differ from the nearest other G. stricta population in the Central Cordillera in Colombia, in their shorter interbract distances (0.1-0.2 cm versus 1.2-1.3 cm) and narrower rachillae (3.1?4.5 mm versus 4.8?7.4 mm). They also occur at lower elevations, 97(50-150) m versus 852(700-1075) m. Based on these differences, and geographic separation, these specimens are recognized as a separate subspecies (subsp. quibdoensis). There are only six specimens from the Central Cordillera in Colombia (Antioquia), too few to test for differences. Based on their geographic isolation, and differences from subsp. quibdoensis, they are recognized as a separate subspecies (subsp. antioquiensis).In central and western Amazon regions and adjacent sub-Andean regions, Geonoma stricta is abundant, widespread, and extremely variable. In sub-Andean regions of Peru (Amazonas, Loreto, Huánuco, Pasco, Ucayali) there are specimens with branched inflorescences (these occur rarely in other areas). One subgroup of these, from Huánuco and Pasco, has leaves with raised adaxial veins, and this is recognized as a subspecies (subsp. submontana). The remaining specimens, with non-raised adaxial veins, can be divided into three subgroups, one from Amazonas with mostly undivided leaves and pendulous inflorescences; one from Amazonas and Loreto with pinnate leaves and erect inflorescences; and one from Huánuco, Pasco, and Ucayali with pinnate leaves and erect inflorescences. ANOVA shows that for pair wise comparison probabilities, 13 variables (stem diameter, internode length, petiole length, rachis length, rachis width, number of pinnae, basal pinna width, basal pinna angle, apical pinna width, peduncle length, peduncle width, rachilla length, rachilla width) differ significantly (P <0.05) between one pair of subgroups, and one (prophyll length) differs amongst all three subgroups. Based on these results, these three subgroups are recognized as subspecies (subspp. bracteata, divaricata, pendula).The remaining specimens from the central and western Amazon region and eastern Andean slopes in Ecuador cannot be divided into consistent groups based on traits or geography. Adaxial veins are difficult to score in several cases; inflorescences are seldom branched, but both branched and unbranched ones can occur on the same plant; and staminate flower persistence is also difficult to score. For these reasons, these specimens are recognized as one subspecies (subsp. arundinacea). In the Guianas and adjacent Brazil (Amapá) there are two subgroups of specimens, one with pinnate leaves and raised adaxial veins and the other with undivided (rarely pinnate) leaves and non-raised adaxial veins. There are only four specimens of the subgroup with pinnate leaves and raised adaxial veins, too few to test for differences. However, this subgroup is geographically isolated from the other, and the two are recognized as subspecies (subsp. stricta, pliniana). (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)B

Description

  • Plants 1.8(0.4-4.0) m tall; stems 1.4(0.2-5.0) m tall, 0.7(0.3-1.6) cm in diameter, solitary or clustered, not cane-like or cane-like; internodes 3.0(0.4-8.4) cm long, yellowish and smooth. Leaves 8(4-17) per stem, undivided or irregularly pinnate, not plicate, bases of blades running diagonally into the rachis; sheaths 8.9(1.0-22.0) cm long; petioles 12.9(1.0-58.0) cm long, drying green or yellowish; rachis 29.6(10.1-75.8) cm long, 2.6(0.9-6.0) mm in diameter; veins raised and rectangular in cross-section adaxially or not raised or slightly raised and triangular in cross-section adaxially; pinnae 2(1-12) per side of rachis; basal pinna 20.4(8.0-38.0) cm long, 3.4(0.6-11.4) cm wide, forming an angle of 40(9-112)° with the rachis; apical pinna 2.6(3.2-38.5) cm long, 10.3(1.5-23.5) cm wide, forming an angle of 34(14-50)° with the rachis. Inflorescences unbranched or branched 1 order; prophylls and peduncular bracts not ribbed with elongate, unbranched fibers, flattened, deciduous or persistent; prophylls 6.8(0.7-21.3) cm long, not short and asymmetrically apiculate, the surfaces not ridged, without unequally wide ridges; peduncular bracts 0.6(0.1?9.6) cm long, vestigial, the prophyll three times or more long, sometimes the peduncular bract apparently well-developed but then soon disintegrating, inserted 1.8(0.1?9.5) cm above the prophyll; peduncles 5.0(0.5-17.0) cm long, 3.2(1.3-6.1) mm in diameter; rachillae 1(1-7), 12.7(1.5-37.0) cm long, 5.4(1.2-15.1) mm in diameter, the surfaces with spiky, fibrous projections or ridges, drying brown or yellow-brown, without short, transverse ridges, not filiform and not narrowed between the flower pits; flower pits spirally arranged, glabrous internally; proximal lips without a central notch before anthesis, not recurved after anthesis, not hood-shaped; proximal and distal lips drying the same color as the rachillae, not joined to form a raised cupule, the proximal lip margins overlapping the distal lip margins; distal lips well-developed; staminate and pistillate petals not emergent, not valvate throughout; staminate flowers persistent or deciduous after anthesis; stamens 6; thecae diverging at anthesis, inserted onto bifid and well-developed, non-jointed connectives; anthers short and curled over at anthesis; non-fertilized pistillate flowers persistent after anthesis; staminodial tubes crenulate or shallowly lobed at the apex, those of non-fertilized pistillate flowers not projecting and persistent after anthesis; fruits 8.6(5.9-14.5) mm long, 5.6(4.0-7.3) mm in diameter, the bases without a prominent stipe, the apices not conical, the surfaces not splitting at maturity, without fibers emerging, ridged from the numerous, subepidermal, meridional, elongate fibers present, these coming to a point at fruit apices; locular epidermis without operculum, smooth, without pores. (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)B

Use Record

  • Geonoma stricta (Poit.) Kunth: Geonoma stricta (Poit.) Kunth Español: Barigito Ponilla, Palmiche. Urarina: Ajcanadijií Usos: Construcción — Ocasionalmente las hojas son utilizadas en la construcción de los techos para las viviendas. Herramientas y utensilios — Los frutos se utilizan como balas para matar aves o dentro de sonajeros para niños, pero no es muy común. Comunidad: 1, 3–5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 19–21, 23–25, 28–30. Voucher: H. Balslev 6638. (Balslev, H., C. Grandez, et al., Useful palms (Arecaceae) near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon. 2008)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/APeru
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
    CulturalRecreationalFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Geonoma stricta (Poit.) Kunth: Las hojas son usadas para techado. (Moraes, M., Contribución al estudio del ciclo biológico de la palma Copernicia alba en un área ganadera (Espíritu, Beni, Bolivia). 1991)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/ABolivia
  • Geonoma stricta (Poit.) Kunth: Leaves are used for thatch, to tap baskets, and for wrapping. Stems are used for walking sticks. The palms heart is chewed to protect teeth from rotting. Seeds are used in blowguns to shoot small birds. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticStemIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingSeedsIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    Medicinal and VeterinaryDental healthPalm heartIndigenousSecoyaEcuador
  • Geonoma stricta (Poit.) Kunth: Leaves used for thatch. Stem surface scraped off and used as stuffing for cartidges. (Báez, S., and Å. Backevall, Dictionary of plants used by the Shuar of Makuma and Mutints. 1998)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemColonoN/AEcuador
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Geonoma stricta (Poit.) Kunth: Los frutos negros pequeños son consumidos por varias especies de aves como " urpi paloma" y el "gallito de la peña". (Balslev, H., M. Rios, G. Quezada and B. Nantipa, Palmas útiles en la cordillera de los Huacamayos. 1997)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Animal FoodWildlife attractantFruitsIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Geonoma stricta (Poit.) Kunth: Sirve para rancho provisional, batidor y sal vegetal para ambíl. (Kronik, J. et al., Fééjahisuu. Palmas de los Nietos de la Tierra y Montaña Verde del Centro. 1999)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousMuinaneColombia
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticNot specifiedIndigenousMuinaneColombia
    CulturalRecreationalNot specifiedIndigenousMuinaneColombia
  • Geonoma stricta (Poit.) Kunth: Techado. Hoja. Chuso. Tallo. (Cerón, C.E., and C. Montalvo, Reserva Biológica Limoncocha. Formaciones vegetales, Diversidad y Etnobotánica.. 2000)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
  • Geonoma stricta (Poit.) Kunth: Techado. Hoja.Chuso. Tallo. (Cerón, C.E., and C. Montalvo, Reserva Biológica Limoncocha. Formaciones vegetales, Diversidad y Etnobotánica.. 2000)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    OtherN/AFruitsIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador

Bibliography

A. World Checklist of Arecaceae
B. Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.