Bactris pilosa H.Karst., Linnaea 28: 405 (1857)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
S. Panama, Colombia, W Venzuela and Ecuador, W of the Andes.
Distribution in Ecuador. In Ecuador the species is known only from semi-deciduous forest on the coastal lowlands. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)B

Eastern Panama (Darién), Colombia (Antioquia, Bolívar, Chocó, Córdoba, Magdalena, Norte de Santander, Sucre, Tolima), Venezuela (Táchira, Zulia), and Ecuador (Los Ríos); lowland forest at 100-830 m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A

Discussion

Common Name

Uses

Description

  • Stems usually cespitose, rarely solitary, forming large, dense clumps, 2-10 m tall, 2.5-4 cm diam., spiny on internodes.
    Leaves 4-8; leaf spines somewhat clustered, yellowish brown or black, darker at base and apex, or black, terete, to 5 cm long, dense on sheath and lateral, adaxial surfaces of petiole, fewer on abaxial surface of rachis; sheath 20-80 cm long, sheath, petiole,and rachis brown-tomentose; ocrea to 10 cm long; petiole 28-60 cm long; rachis 1.2-2.2 m long; pinnae 59-68 per side, regularly or irregularly arranged (and then with gaps), spreading in the same or different planes, linear, aristate, slightly to densely pilose on adaxial and abaxial surface; middle pinnae 27-47 x 1.5- 2.2 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 14- 35 cm long, recurved, spiny; prophyll 16-18 cm long; peduncular bract 27-47 cm long, brown-tomentose, densely covered with soft, appressed, brown spines, with longer, black spines intermixed; rachis 4-6 cm long; rachillae 6- 26, 13-25 cm long, at anthesis not seen; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers 3-5.5 mm long; sepal lobes 1-1.5 mm long; petals 3-5 mm long; stamens 5-6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers 3-6 mm long; calyx cupular, 3-5 mm long, spinulose or glabrous; corolla urceolate, to 4.5 mm long, lepidote; staminodes absent; fruits 1.3-2.5 x 1-2 cm, depressed obovoid, rostrate, purple-black, covered with short spinules; mesocarp juicy; endocarp turbinate, the sterile pores displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers numerous, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with spinulose calyx longer than the corolla, without staminodial ring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A
  • Stems usually clustered, many together, 2-10 m tall, , 2.5-4 cm in diameter. Leaf blade 1.2-2.2 m long; pinnae 59-68 per side, regularly arranged or grouped, spreading on one or several planes, the central ones 27-47 cm long and 1.5-2.2 cm wide. Inflorescence 20-40 cm long with 6-26 branches, 13-25 cm long. Female flowers scattered along the branches, with urceolate calyx greatly exceeding the corolla in length; staminodial ring absent. Fruit purple-black, flattened at top, rostrate, covered with short spinules, 1-2 cm in diameter. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)B

Materials Examined

  • PANAMA. DARIÉN: Rd. to Pinogana near El Real, 13 Ju1 1971. Croat & Porter 15479 (MO); Cerro Pirre, 8°N, 77°47'W, Croat 68989 (MO); Perrecenico River, s.d., Duke & Bristan 244 (MO. US); Rio Pirre, 2-5 m above El Real, 23 Jun 1962, Duke 5076 (MO); 10-11 Aug 1962, Duke 5467 (MO); RENARE hut in Darién National Park, 5 Aug 1986, McDonagh et al. 423 (BM).
    COLOMBIA. ANTIOQUIA: Mun. San Pedro de Urabá, 180-200 m, 13 Jul 1982, Bernal & Galeano 405 (COL, NY); Mun. San Luís, rd. to La Punta, 6°6'N, 74°48'W, 14 Apr 1990, Cárdenas & Ramírez 2785 (MO); Mun. Caucasia, rd. from Nechí, 24 km from Caucasia-Planeta Rico rd., 8°4'N, 75°5'W, 21 Mar 1987, Zarucchi et al. 4874 (MO).
    BOLÍVAR: Norosi-Tiquisio trail, Loba, Apr-May 1916, Curran 125 (US); La Raya, 8°20'N, 74°55'W, 50-80 m, Gentry & Cuadros 57254 (MO, NY).
    CHOCO: RIO Cacarica and Río Atrato, 15 Jul 1957, Romero-Castañeda 6402 (COL, MO).
    CÓRDOBA: Mun. Tierralta, 2 km S of Frasquillo, 120 m, 24 Jul 1986, Bernal et al. 1134 (COL, FTG).
    MAGDALENA: Isla 133 Brava, s.d., André 356 (K, NY).
    NORTE DE SANTANDER: Bellavista, on pipeline, 830 m, 15 Sep 1946, M. Foster 1672a (BH), M. Foster 1706 (BH).
    SUCRE: 15 km ENE of Tolú, 100 m, 16 Jul 1975, Warner 574 (BH, COL).
    TOLIMA: Mariquita, 550 m, 26-27 Nov 1984, Bernal et al. 795 (BH, COL, K), Bernal et al. 807 (COL, NY).
    VENEZUELA. TÁCHIRA: Near La Fría, 8°13'N, 72°17'W, 375 m, 20 Jun 1967, Wessels Boer 1871 (NY).
    ZULIA: Dist. Colón, Casigua El Cubo, 350-450 m, 28 Apr 1979, Bunting et al. 7301 (US); 10 km E of Churuguarita, 250-300m, 5-8 Aug 1980, Bunting 9435 (NY) ; 13 km N of Embalse, 10°25'N, 70°49'W, 550-600 m, 1-5 Apr 1982, Bunting et al. 11277 (NY); Dist. Perija, ca. 13 km NE of intersection of Maracaibo-La Fría hwy., 9°26'N, 72°29'W, 40 m, 20 Jun 1980, Davidse et al. 18285 (MO, NY); km 90 on rd. from Machiques to Colón, 50-100 m, 22 Aug 1967, Steyermark & Fernandez 99603 (BH, MO, NY); Sierra de Perija, SE of Machiques, 27 Aug 1967, Steyermark & Fernandez 99822 (BH, MO); Sierra de Perija, SW of Machiques, 325-350 m, 31 Aug 1967 Steyermark 99952 (BH, NY); 30 km N of Can a Zancudo, 8°58'N, 71°20'W, 100 m, 5 Dec 1967, Wessels Boer 2116 (NY); Perija, 9°50'N, 72°50'W, 300-400 m, 6 Apr 1968, Wessels Boer 2455 (NY).
    ECUADOR. Los Ríos: Jauneche, km 70 on Quevedo-Palenque rd., 4 Feb 1979, Dodson et al. 7737 (BH). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A