Bactris coloniata L.H.Bailey, Gentes Herb. 3: 106 (1933)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Eastern Panama (Colón, Panamá, San Blas), northwestern Colombia (Antioquia, Chaco), Ecuador (Los Rios), and Peru (Amazonas); lowland rain forest, at 20-675 m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Disjunct between Panama-NW Colombia, W Ecuador, and E Ecuador-NE Peru (Dept. Amazonas).
Distribution in Ecuador. In Ecuador it is known only from a few localities in tropical dry forest around the Jauneche forest reserve SW of Babahoyo, and from a single collection in the E lowlands. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

  • Bactris coloniata is diagnosed by its yellowish brown fruits covered with short brown spinules. Some specimens cited above are problematical. Nee 7020 from Panama has the subequal fruiting calyx and corolla and spinulose fruits of B. coloniata and the plicate leaves of B. kunorum, and pinnae with numerous, black, marginal spines 1-3 mm long. Specimens from Colombia have much larger fruits than those from Panama. The inclusion here of specimens from east of the Andes in Peru (and also Ecuador) is also somewhat problematic. These specimens appear to represent this species, even though the fruits are rather different and one specimen has simple leaves. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Common Name

Description

  • Understorey palm. Stems clustered, 2.5-3 m tall, ca. 5 cm in diameter. Leaf axis with scattered, long, yellow spines; petiole ca. 1 m long; blade 175-200 cm long; pinnae 50-60 on each side, inserted in groups and spreading in different planes, the central ones 50-75 cm long and 3-6 cm wide, with asymetrical apex ending in a long tail. Inflorescence 25-50 cm long; branches ca. 25 branches, 10-12 cm long. Female flowers scattered along the branches. Fruits red to brownish red, rough, obovoid, flattened at top, strongly rostrate, 2-3 cm in diameter; fruiting perianth with calyx ca. as long as the corolla; staminodial ring absent. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stems cespitose, rarely solitary, forming open clumps, 3.5-7 m tall, 2- 5 cm diam., spiny on internodes.
    Leaves 5-7; leaf spines scattered, somewhat flattened, yellowish brown, darker at base and apex, to 5 cm long; sheath 27-55 cm long; sheath, petiole, and rachis reddish brown-tomentose; ocrea prominent, to 30 cm long; petiole 39-70(-108) cm long; rachis (0.4-)1.2-1.4(-2) m long; pinnae (4)-14- 23(-60) per side(or rarely leaf simple), regularly or irregularly arranged in clusters of 4-12, spreading in the same or different planes, linear-lanceolate, elliptic or slightly sigmoid, the apex long-caudate and drooping, without conspicuous cross-veins, glabrous; middle pinnae 30-75 x 2.5- 7.2 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 16-25 cm, strongly recurved, not spiny; prophyll 15-49 cm; peduncular bract (26-)42-60 cm long, densely covered with appressed, brown, flattened spines; rachis 4-10 cm long; rachillae 9-16(-25),14-25 cm long, to 3 mm diam. in fruit, densely covered at anthesis with moniliform trichomes; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers to 4 mm long; sepal lobes 1-3 mm long; petals to 4 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers 5-7 mm long; calyx urceolate, 4-6 mm long; corolla urceolate. 5-6 mm long, with minute spinules; staminodes absent; fruits 1.5-3 x 1.5-2(-3) cm, broadly obovoid, prominently rostrate, yellowish brown, covered with short brown spinules; mesocarp juicy; endocarp turbinate, the pores equidistant or the sterile pores slightly displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers numerous, wiry, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with calyx only slightly shorter than the corolla, both crenulate-margined, without staminodial ring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Materials Examined

  • PANAMA. COLÓN: Barro Colorado Island, 4 Sep 1929, Bangham 555 (F, US), 8 Aug 1940, Bartlett 16716 (MICH), 10 Aug 1940, Bartlett 16745 (MICH), 3 May 1968, Croat 5306 (MO), Croat 5307(MO), 18 Sep 1968, Croat 6174 (MO), 7 Oct 1968, Croat 6772 (MO), 11 Jan 1969, Croat 7141 (MO), 22 Jan 1969,Croat 7434 (MO), Croat 7439 (MO), 18 Feb 1969, Croat 8039 (MO), 3 Mar 1969, Croat 8343 (MO), 19 Mar 1969,Croat 8787 (MO), 20 Mar 1969, Croat 8799 (MO), 30 Mar 1970, Croat 9230 (F, MO, NY), 19 Jun 1970, Croat 10949 (F), 22 Jun 1970, Croat 11010 (F, MO), Croat 11013 (MO), 25 Jun 1970, Croat 11018 (MO), Croat 11021 (MO), Croat 11022 (MO), 2 Jul 1970, Croat 11102 (MO), Croat 11103 (MO), 8 Jul 1970, Croat 11144 (MO), 10 Jul 1970, Croat 11198 (MO), 28 Jul 1970, Croat 11642 (MO), 5 Jul 1971, Croat 15252 (F, NY), Croat 15257 (MO), 22 Jul 1927, Kenoyer 161 (US), 6 Jun 1923, Maxon et al. 6828 (US), s.d.,Oppenheimer 67-1-3-1020 (MO); rd. to Santa Rita Ridge, 9°20'N, 79°47'W, 200 m, 29 Jun 1984, Churchill 5564 (MO); Margarita Swamp, Colón, 28 Jun 1923, Cook & Martin 5 (FTG, US); Frijoles, 13 Jul 1923, Cook & Martin 65 (US); between Fort Sherman and Fort San Lorenzo, 10 Jul 1971,Croat 15422 (MO); between Gatun and Fort Sherman, 10 Jul 1971, Croat 15408 (F, MO, NY).
    PANAMA: Cerro Azul, 23 Jun 1972, Croat 17279 (MO); 4.5 km N of Lago Cerro Azul , vic. of Finca Vega, 675 m, 17 Sep 1973, Nee 7020 (MO, WIS).
    SAN BLAS: El Lano-Cartí rd., km 19.1, 9°19'N, 78°55'W, 200 m, 8 Jan 1985, de Nevers et al. 4464 (MO,NY); El Llano-Cartí rd., km 26.5, along Rio Carti Chico, 9°I9'N, 78°55'W, 200 m, 12 Apr 1985, de Nevers et al. 5343(MO, NY); Cangandí, 30 m, Herrera 166 (MO); MiriaUbigendup, 9°26'N, 78°56'W, 20 m, Herrera & Pérez 304 (CAS); El Lano-Cartí rd., near continental divide, 12 Apr 1975, Mori & Kallunki 5547 (MO).
    COLOMBIA. ANTIOQUIA: Mun. Urrao, Vegáez, 100-200 m, 15 Jul 1983, Bernal et al. 672 (AAU, COL, NY).
    CHOCÓ: Rd. Quibdó-Yuto, 10 km S of Quibdó, 150 m, 8 Jul 1986, Bernal et al. 1088 (COL, FTG, NY); 10 km NW of Las Animas, 100 m, 10 Jul 1986,Bernal et al. 1099 (AAU,COL, FTG, NY); 1-2 km S of Yuto, 5°30'N, 76°37'W, 7 Jan 1979, Gentry & Rentería 23784 (COL, MO), 15 Jun 1982, Gentry & Brand 36947 (MO); 14 km NE of Quibdó, 17 Jan 1979, Gentry & Rentería 24256 (MO); 1 km E of Tutunendo, 5°46'N, 76°35'W, 4 Jan 1981, Gentry et al. 30059 (COL, MO); Serranía de Baudó, 6°15'N, 77°25'W, 5 Mar 1983,Gentry & Juncosa 40963 (COL, MO); Río Mecana, 6°15'N, 77°25'W, 7 Mar 1973, Gentry & Juncosa 41101 (COL, MO).
    ECUADOR. Los Rios: Jauneche Biological Station, 10°27'S, 79°45'W, 15 Apr 1991 , Bergmann & Knudsen 97807 (AAU).
    PERU. AMAZONAS: Kusu, Río Numpatkin. 400 m, 10 Mar 1973, Ancuash 51 (MO); Río Cenepa, Kayamas creek, 5 km from confluence of Huampami and Cenepa, 250 m, 4 Dec 1972, Berlin 449 (BH, MO); Quebrada Chikisinuk, tributary of Río Huampami, 300 m, 21 Dec 1972, Berlin 670 (BH, MO); Yucui Entsa. 6 hours from Pango Meriche, rd.to Kusu, 300 m, 11 Mar 1973, Kayap 552 (MO) (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B