Bactris riparia Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 97 (1826)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Colombia (Amazonas), Ecuador (Sucumbíos), Peru (Loreto, Ucayali), Brazil (Acre, Amazonas), and Bolívia (Beni, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz); black-water regions (less commonly on white water rivers) at the margins of streams, rivers, and lakes, often where the stems are partially submerged for at least part of the year, at 120-300 m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

W Amazon region in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Riparian, forming large colonies in periodically inundated forest, often growing in several meters deep water.
Distribution in Ecuador. Common in E Ecuador. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

  • Bactris riparia is diagnosed by its 33-62, linear pinnae per side that are briefly and asymmetrically bifid apically, and with soft brown hairs to 2 mm long abaxially. It was included by Sanders (1991) in the Corossilla clade; however the endocarp fibers are either free or adherent 10 the endocarp (as in B. setulosa), and B. riparia appears closer to B. gasipaes. Bactris longifrons and Guilielma mattogrossensis were included by Henderson (1995) and Henderson et al. (1995) as synonyms of B. riparia; the former is here treated under "Doubtful Names and Excluded Taxa," and the latter as a synonym of B. gasipaes var. chichagui. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Common Name

Description

  • Riverside and lake shore palm. Stems clustered, to 6 m tall and 4-8 cm in diameter. Leaf blade 100-150 cm long; pinnae 40-50 on each side, inserted in groups and spreading in different planes, the central ones 40-60 cm long and 1.5-2.5 cm wide. Inflorescence 25-45 cm long; branches 25-30, 10-15 cm long. Female flowers scattered along the branches. Fruits green, strongly flattened at top, rostrate, ca. 1 x 1.5 cm; fruiting calyx with a very small, undulate calyx, and a much longer 3-lobed corolla; staminodial ring absent. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stems cespitose, usually forming large clumps, 3-10(-15) m tall, 4.5-10 cm diam., spiny on internodes.
    Leaves 4-18; leaf spines clustered, black or brownish, tomentose, somewhat flattened, to 7 cm long, dense on sheath and lateral surfaces of petiole, fewer on rachis; sheath 30-60 cm long, sheath, petiole, and rachis whitish brown-tomentose; ocrea to 5 cm long; petiole 10-70 cm long; rachis 0.8-1.6 m long; pinnae 33-62 per side, irregularly arranged in indistinct clusters of 2-7, spreading in different planes, linear, briefly and asymmetrically bifid apically, with small, marginal spinules and occasionally with spines on veins abaxially, usually with soft brown hairs to 2 mm long abaxially, especially on veins; middle pinnae 40-69 x 1.5-2.5 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 10-20 cm long, recurved, spiny; prophyll 8-15 cm long; peduncular bract 30-47 cm long, whitish tomentose and densly to moderately covered with black spines; rachis 7-8 cm long; rachillae 24-50, to 15 cm long, at anthesis densely covered with brown, moniliform trichomes; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers 4-6 mm long, deciduous; sepal lobes 1-1.5 mm long; petals 3.5-5 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers 4.5-6 mm long; calyx cupular, 1-1.5 mm long; corolla tubular, 4-5 mm long; staminodes absent; fruits 1.5-2 cm diam., depressed globose, orange-red or green; mesocarp starchy; endocarp turbinate, the sterile pores displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers numerous, free or adherent 139 to the endocarp; fruiting perianth with small, undulate calyx and much longer 3-lobed corolla, without staminodial ring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Materials Examined

  • COLOMBIA. AMAZONAS: Río Cahuinarí, 220 m, 15 Sep 1988, Galeano & Miraña 1797 (COL, NY); Puerto Nariño, Tarapoto, 21 Oct 1983, Prada 107 (COL).
    ECUADOR. SUCUMBÍOS: Río Cuyabeno between inlets of Laguna Grande and Río Tarapuy, 0°3'S, 76°11'W, 230 m, 27 Jul 1983, Balslev & Asanza 4345 (AAU, NY); Lagunas Cuyabeno, Laguna Grande, 0°2'N, 76°12'W, 300 m, 22 Apr 1986, Balslev et al. 62051 (AAU, COL, NY, USM); Laguna de Yuturi, 0°36'S , 76°1'W, 220 m, 24 Feb 1990, Jaramillo & Grijalva 11264 (NY)
    PERU. LORETO: Pacaya-Samaria,4°40'S, 74°20'W, 14 Sep 1991, Chavez 752 (CUZ); Prov. Maynas, Rio Gueppi, tributary of Putumayo, northernmost lip of Peru on border with Ecuador, ca. 200 m, 14 May 1978, Gentry et al. 21864 (F, MO, USM); Santa Maria de Nanay, 25 Mar 1979, Gentry et al. 26227 (BH); Prov. Maynas, Yanuyacu, across Río Amazonas from Indiana, 120 m, 12 Mar 1981 , Gentry et al. 32124 (MO); Padre Isla, opposite Iquitos, 11 Sep 1995, Henderson & Padilla 2020 (NY).
    UCAYALI: Canchahuayo, 7°5'S, 75°10'W, 200 m, 28 Nov 1985, Vasquez et al. 6987 (AMAZ).
    BRAZIL. ACRE: Río Moa, between Seringal Belo Monte and Santa Barbara, 7°30'S, 73°W, 12 Feb 1992, Henderson 1676 (INPA, NY), 12 Feb 1992, Henderson et al. 1677 (K, NY).
    AMAZONAS: Mun. Careiro, Manaus-Porto Velho hwy., km 20, 3°30'S, 60°W, 1 Apr 1985, Henderson & Lima 180 (K, NY); Mun. Tefe, Río Solimões, ca. 2 hours upstream from Tefé, 22 Jan 1991, Henderson & Guedes 1604 (INPA, K, NY); Manaus, Ponta Negra, 1 Feb 1992, Henderson et al. 1647 (NY); Lago Grande de Manacapuru, 3°3'S, 61°35'W, 18 Jun 1992, Mori & Gracie 22393 (NY); Altamira, right bank of Rio Juruá, 6°35'S, 68°54'W, 8 Nov 1991, Pardini 46 (INPA , NY, SPF); Rio Negro near jet, with Rio Branco, E of Carvoei ro, 1°25'S, 61°20'W, 26 Jun 1979, Poole 1648 (INPA, NY); Rio Padauiri , 28 Jun 1874, Trail 894/LXXXII (K).
    BOLIVIA. BENI: Prov. Balliván, Espíritu. 200 m, 29 Sep 1986, S. Beck 5945 (NY, USZ); Pray. Yacuma, Espíritu, 14°8'S , 66°24'W, ca. 200 m, 28 Oct 1989, Moraes & Sarmiento 1094 (FTG, NY, USZ); Prov. Cereado, El Carmen, 60 km NE of Trinidad, 14°15'S, 64°5'W, 30 Oct 1993, Moraes et al. 1389 (NY); Prov. Marbán, Parque Isiboro-Sécure, 200 m, 5 Jun 1992, Seidel et af. 6670 (NY).
    LA PAZ: Prov. Iturralde, Luisita, 13°5'S, 67°l5'W, 180 m, 29 Feb 1984, S. Beck & Haase 10148 (US).
    PANDO: Manúripi, Puerto Rico, Río Manúri pe, 24 Jan 1983, Casas 8436 (NY, MO).
    SANTA CRUZ: Prov. Ichilo. Puerto Grether, 13 Aug 1989, L. Moreno 8 (NY); Prov. Velasco, Río San Ramón, 30 Oct 1989, L Morello 23 (NY); Prov. Obispo, Santestevan Chan, 16°52'S, 63°22'W, 14 Nov J 990, Saldias el al. 1284 (USZ) (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

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