Laccosperma laeve (G.Mann & H.Wendl.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 729 (1891)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Angolapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Cameroonpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Congopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Gabonpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ghanapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ivory Coastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Liberiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Zairepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Laccosperma laeve is distributed in the coastal forests from Liberia and the forest of Upper Guinea to Cameroon and south to Cabinda (Angola). However, there is a considerable disjunction from Ghana to Nigeria. (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Biology And Ecology


  • Clustered slender palm climbing to 10-13 m. Stems often branching, without sheaths to 16 mm in diameter, with ca.20 mm; internodes 8-17 cm long. Leaf sheath moderately to sparsely armed with black-tipped, pale brown spines, spreading or lightly reflexed, upper sheaths near inflorescence more sparsely armed; black caducous indumentum present on mature leaf sheaths; ocrea 8-20 cm long, gradually tapering at the apex, pale straw-coloured without, shiny mid-brown within, armed as the sheath. Leaves up to 1.5 m; petiole on lower leaves up to 18 cm long × 0.8 cm wide, abaxially rounded, adaxially flattened, armed along the margins with angular, inequidistant black tipped, bulbous-based spines up to 1.3 cm long, spreading or reflexed; rachis up to 90 cm long, more commonly, 60 cm, distinctly trapezoid in cross section at the base, rounded in cross-section distally, armed as the petiole, spines decreasing in size distally and becoming regularly reflexed and increasingly bulbous-based; cirrus up to 70 cm long, more commonly 50-60 cm, armed as the rachis; leaflets composed of 2-4 folds, 10-12 pairs on each side of the rachis, inequidistant and unequal in size, usually subequidistant proximally and borne in loose pairs distally, sigmoid, 15-20 to 25-30 cm long × 3.5-6 to 8-10 cm broad at the widest point, ± concolorous with prominent transverse veinlets, margin unarmed; acanthophylls 2.5-2.8 cm long. Inflorescences, numbering 4-8 produced simultaneously in the distal to 30 cm of stem; peduncle ca.8 cm long; prophyll ca.3.5 cm; rachis bracts 1.5-2 cm long, gradually decreasing distally, tapering to form a short, triangular lobe, often tattering, finely longitudinally striate, closely adpressed to the bract above; rachillae 8-12 cm long, spreading, densely covered in imbricate longitudinally striate, rachillae bracts ± 3 mm long, each with a wide opening and 1 mm-long apiculum. Flowers at anthesis, 6-8 mm × 2-3 mm; calyx tan-cream, 4-4.5 mm long, tubular in the basal 2.5-3 mm, with 3 longitudinally striate, 2 mm × 2-2.5 mm triangular lobes; corolla, tubular in the basal 0.8-1 mm only, with three valvate lobes, white or pale cream, longitudinally striate, 6-7.5 mm × 2-2.5 mm, with a broadly acuminate tip; stamen filaments dark brown, 3 mm × 1 mm, united into 1 mm-long basal tube; anthers 3 mm × 1 mm; ovary ± 1 mm in diameter, stigma up to 4 mm long. Fruit at maturity, ovoid, 0.8-1 cm × 0.6-0.8 cm, with 14-18 rows of vertical scales. Seed smooth, ovoid, 0.6-0.8 cm long, 0.4-0.6 cm wide, ± 0.3 cm thick, flattened on one side, with light linear depression running from base to apex. (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A

Materials Examined

  • LIBERIA: Jansen 1822, Mmal Mining Company Concession, Fr. February 13, 1970 (K!); Linder 676, Gbanga (06º59N:09º28W) sterile, September 17, 1926 (K!, MO!); Linder1228, Gbanga (06º59N:09º28W) sterile, October 24, 1926 (K!, WAG!); Ivory Coast; Ake-Assi 9450, Pata (04º35N:07º23W) sterile, February 19, 1967 (K!); Boughey 14732, Issia (06º28N:06º33W) sterile, August 2, 1954 (K!); Chevalier 22658, Between Abougoua and Yacassi (05º43N:03º57W) Fr., December 26, 1909 (K!); de Wilde & Leeuwenberg 3432, 26km W of Abidjan (05º20N:04º16W) Fl., February 20, 1962 (BR!, MO!); Hall & Ake-Assi 45442, 2 miles E of Sakre (05º41N:07º21W) sterile, August 15, 1975 (GC!); Hepper & Maley 8214, Taï Forest (05º38N:07º08W) sterile, September 18, 1984 (K!); Oldeman 137, Foret de Banco, sterile, July 6, 1963 (K!, WAG!); GHANA: Adams 2190, 7 miles from Enchi (05º29N:02º29W) sterile, December 30, 1953 (GC!); Enti 2344, Neung Forest Reserve, Tarkwa (05º27N:00º50W) Fr., November 30, 1988 (GC!); Kinlock 3237, Tarkwa, Ndumnfri F.R. (05º10N:02º09W) sterile, February 3, 1934 (KUM!); Moore & Enti 9882, Ankasa River Forest Reserve (05º15N:02º36W) sterile, March 4, 1971 (GC!); Sunderland 2265, Draw River Forest Reserve (05º12N:02º20W) sterile, May 26, 1999 (K!, KUM!); Sunderland 2266, Draw River Forest Reserve (05º12N:02º20W) sterile, May 26, 1999 (K!, KUM!); CAMEROON: Sunderland 1804, Campo Ma'an Faunal Reserve (02º10N:09º54E) sterile, March 20, 1997 (K!, YA!, MO!, WAG!); Sunderland 2251, Mokoko River Forest Reserve (04º29N:09º00E) sterile, February 16, 1999 (K!, SCA!); CONGO: Sita 4642, Chaillu, Fl., April 1982 (BR!); GABON: Arends et al. 671, Mt Doubou (02º15S:10º20E), Fr., December 6, 1984 (WAG!); le Testu 1712, Region de Nyanga (02º14N:11º27E); Fl., July 3, 1919 (K!, BR!, MO!); Mann 1045, Gaboon River (00º19N:09º29E) Fl., 1861 (K!); Rietsma 2047, 15km NW of Libreville (00º35N:09º22E) Fr., March 21, 1986 (LBR!); ANGOLA: Gossweiler 7995, Mayombe, Luali (05º00S:12º25E) sterile, 1919 (K!) (T.C.H Sunderland, A taxonomic revision of the rattans of Africa (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) in Phytotaxa 51. 2012)A