Bactris bidentula Spruce, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 11: 146 (1869)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil West-Centralpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Central Amazon region in Colombia (Amazonas), Venezuela (Amazonas, Apure), Peru (Loreto) and Brazil (Amazonas, Mato Grosso, western Pará). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A

Habitat

  • Lowland rain forest, along the margins of small, black-water streams or lakes in areas liable to inundation (igapo), or along margins of white water rivers, at 125-200 m elevation. The lower parts of the stems are often completely submerged during high water. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A

Discussion

  • Bactris bidentula is diagnosed by its 3-4(-8) cm long, clustered leaf spines, and densely whitish brown lepidote abaxial pinnae surface. It is similar to B. glaucescens, distributed in the southern part of the Amazon region. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A

Common Name

  • Bolivia: chontilla. Brazil: marajá do igapó, marajá do jacaré. Colombia: boo b(o) me g(e) (Miraña). Peru: ñejilla. Venezuela: cubarro, espina. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A

Description

  • Stems cespitose, forming dense clumps of 4-20 or more stems, 1.7-5 m tall, 3-6 cm diam., spiny on internodes.
    Leaves 3-16; leaf spines distinctly clustered, black, tomentose at first, 3-4(-8) cm long, on sheath, petiole, and abaxial surface of rachis; sheath 10-35 cm long, fibrous on the margins, sheath, petiole, and rachis densely whitish tomentose, glabrescent; ocrea to 30 cm long, becoming fibrous and persistent; petiole 14-53 cm long; rachis 0.5-1.6 m long; pinnae 24-49 per side, irregularly arranged in distant clusters of 2-7, spreading in different planes, linear-lanceolate or oblanceolate, briefly bifid at the apex, with few spines on margins, densely whitish brown-Iepidote abaxially; middle pinnae 16-34 x 2.3-4 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 8-32 cm long, straight to slightly recurved, not spiny; prophyll 9-20 cm long; peduncular bract 22-45 cm long, whitish brown-tomentose with few black spines to 2 cm long; rachis 4-12 cm long; rachillae 20-50, 10-12 cm long, at anthesis densely covered with moniliform trichomes; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers 3-4 mm long; sepal lobes 1-1.5 mm long; petals 3-4 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode minute or absent; pistillate flowers 2.5-3 mm long; calyx cupular, to 1 mm long; corolla tubular, 2.5-3 mm long; staminodes absent;fruits to 2 cm diam., depressed-globose, rostrate, purple-black; mesocarp juicy; endocarp depressed-oblong, the sterile pores displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers numerous, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with cupular, 3-lobed calyx and cupular, scarcely 3-lobed corolla, without staminodial ring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A

Use Record

  • Bactris bidentula Spruce: Bactris bidentula Spruce Español: Nejilla, Usos: Herramientas y utensilios — Ocasionalmente los frutos son utilizados como cebo para pescar. Alimenticio — Los frutos maduros son comestibles. Comunidad: 4, 6, 7, 9, 12–16, 19, 20, 23–25, 27. Voucher: H. Balslev 7517. (Balslev, H., C. Grandez, et al., Useful palms (Arecaceae) near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon. 2008)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
    Animal FoodFish baitFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Bactris bidentula Spruce: In spite of the tartness of the fruits, young and old alike enjoy snacking on the pale green flesh surrounding the single black seeds. (Smith, N., R. Vásquez, and W. H. Wust, Amazon river fruits. Flavors for Conservation. 2007)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Bactris bidentula Spruce: Los frutos maduros tienen sabor agradable y son consumidos por los cazadores y los pescadores durante sus correrías. (Galeano, G., Las palmas de la región de Araracuara. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/AColombia

Bibliography

A. Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae