Orania macropetala K.Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee : 205 (1900)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
New Guinea present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
New Guinea in both the Indonesian Province of Papua Barat and Papua New Guinea. In Papua Barat it is only known from a limited area around Manokwari. In Papua New Guinea it is found in the northern part especially between Madang and Morobe Provinces. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Habitat

  • From lowland to highland tropical rainforest within altitude range 100 - 900 m above sea level. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Discussion

  • Essig (1980) noted that the number of staminodes in Orania macropetala is three or four. We cannot account for this description because the protologue (Lauterbach & Schumann 1901) does not mention it - not even the nine to 14 stamens. Both syntypes in FI (Lauterbach 2001 and 2835) are without flowers. Actually they are available only as parts of leaf rachis, rachillae and part of mature fruit- fortunately Lauterbach 2835 is accompanied by two clear photographs -but nothing could be done to observe the staminodes. The observation of flowers then was based on the three non-type complete specimens, which match the protologue. Two specimens show six staminodes, the other ten. Beccari (1915) selected a specimen of O. macropetala with both staminate and pistillate flowers Schlechter's "Djamer" (Djamu?) no. 17980 kept in B. Unfortunately this specimen was most likely destroyed during the SecondWorldWar. In FI there is one specimen of O. macropetala collected by Schlechter from near a forest called "Djamu" in the then German New Guinea, Schlechter 17580, with an annotation that the specimen is a copy or duplicate sent to FI by B. Until we can trace Schlechter?s original ?Djamer? 17980, we presume that this specimen is actually the one which Beccari mentioned. The number 17980 might be just a misprint of 17580. Another "Djamu" specimen is kept in L and without collection number although it was also collected by Schlechter on the same day as Schlechter 17580. The FI one has both ten stamens and staminodes. The L one has 11 stamens and just six staminodes. Could the L specimen be the duplicate of Schlechter "Djamer" 17980? According to the protologue, the mature fruits are 7 - 7.5 cm diam. - presumably there was fresh material (from dried materials we measured only 6 cm). If they are, O. macropetala could be one of the four New Guinean taxa, which have large fruits - the other three are O. longistaminodia, O. palindan and O. regalis. The selection of Lauterbach 2835 as lectotype by Essig is accepted for this specimen at FI; it has the more significantly representative appearance than the other one - Lauterbach 2001. O. macropetala is one of three Malesian species with more than six stamens; the others are O. longistaminodia and O. zonae. However, these three species are different in several characters. O. macropetala in some way resembles O. lauterbachiana, especially regarding the robust rachillae and the size and shape of staminate flowers. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Conservation

  • Near threatened (NT). Although widespread in New Guinea, most of the collections were made at least 40 years ago with only one collection made recently. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Common Name

  • Gamain (Usino-Madang). (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Etymology

  • Big petals. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Description

  • Large palm. Trunk 10 - 20 m high, c. 20 cm diam. (dbh). Leaves c. 12 in the crown, spirally arranged, c. 3.9 - 5 m long; leaf-sheath 42 - 50 cm long, adaxial surface glabrous, abaxial surface with dense red-brown tomentum, margins disintegrating into fibres; petiole c. 1 m long; rachis c. 2.9 - 4 m long, c. 2.5 cm diam. in the middle part; leaflets elongate-lanceolate, regularly arranged leaflets held in one plane, c. 6.5 - 7 cm distant; c. 79 - 140 cm long, 5 - 8.5 cm wide, adaxial surface glabrous, midrib robust, other ribs slender, glabrous, abaxial surface densely covered with white indumentum, thin red-brown tomentum in margin and basal part, midrib massive, other ribs slender, glabrous. Inflorescence spreading, branching to 2 orders, robust, c. 200 cm long (J. R. Croft et al. LAE 71098); peduncle glabrous or with red-brown tomentum, sometimes with creamy white indumentum, c. 100 cm long (J. R. Croft et al. LAE 71098); first order branches c. 60 - 70 cm long, sometimes c. 10 cm, rachis bract c. 5 - 1.1 cm long, 3.5 - 1.5 cm wide, rachillae robust, conspicuously zigzag, with greyish white indumentum, c. 30 - 50 cm long, bearing 30 - 50 flower clusters, bearing triads in the proximal 4=5 and paired staminate flowers in the distal 1=5 part, the basal c. 2 - 4 cm devoid of flowers, triads c. 2 - 3 cm distant. Staminate flowers with calyx of 3 united sepals, c. 1.5 - 4 mm long; corolla with 3 free petals, c. 15 - 17 mm long, 4.5 - 5 mm wide; stamens 9 - 14, filaments always free, dark brown, c. 1 - 2 mm long, anthers elongate-lanceolate, pale creamy yellow, free, c. 5 - 7 mm long, pistillode absent. Pistillate flowers with calyx of 3 united sepals, c. 1 - 2 cm long; corolla with 3 free petals, c. 9 - 13 mm long, 5 - 6 mm wide; staminodes 6 or 10, c. 1.5 - 3 mm long, uniform; gynoecium c. 6 × 5 mm, stigma with 3 elongate lobes, brighter coloured, c. 2 mm long. Fruits globose, c. 6 cm diam.; epicarp thin, smooth; mesocarp fibrous, c. 3 - 4 mm thick; endocarp red-brown, hard; endosperm white, c. 5 cm diam., 1.4 cm thick, with hollow inside, c. 2 cm diam. Embryo placed below middle line of seed. Eophyll bifid. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Materials Examined

  • INDONESIA. Papua Barat. Manokwari: Waren, 60 miles S of Manokwari, 2 March 1940, Kanehira & Hatusima 12967 (BO!). PAPUA NEW GUINEA. Ebene: Astrolobe, May 1896, Lauterbach 2001 (FI! paratype); Bismarck Mountain, 10 Sept. 1896, Lauterbach 2835 (FI! isolectotype). Northern/Kaiser Wilhelmsland: Woildtum to Djamu, 20 April 1908, Schlechter "Djamu" (L!); Djamu, 20 April 1908, Schlechter 17580 (FI!). Morobe: Kajabit, Aug. - Dec. 1939, Clemens 10894 (K!); Finschhafen, Banario Mountain, near Nanduo village, 28 km NW of Finschhafen, 6°25'55.5"S 147°40'3.2"E, 6 Dec. 2000, R. Banka 2014 (BO!, K!, LAE). Madang: Bongu, 1978, J. R. Croft et al. LAE 71098 (L!); Mountain 2 km S of Usino, 5 April 1978, Essig & Young LAE 74001 (BH, L!, LAE). (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Bibliography

    A. A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae