Geonoma brongniartii Mart., Voy. Amér. Mér. 7(3): 24 (1843)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Venezuelapresent (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)B

Discussion

  • Taxonomic notes: - The holotype of Geonoma brongniartii at P has not been seen. A specimen from F, labeled "Geonoma elegans Mart., Bolivia, Yapacani, 400 m, Otto Kuntze VI 92", has written on it, apparently in Wessels Boer's handwriting, "leg. d'Orbigny 39, Type of G. brongniartii". This specimen, clearly not representing G. elegans, is referred to by Wessels Boer (1968) as being an isotype of G. brongniartii. Although it is not clear why Wessels Boer thought the specimen was an isotype, it is treated as such here.

    Subspecific variation: - Five traits (stem branching, leaf division, adaxial veins, inflorescence branching, locular epidermis sculpting) vary within this species. There is evidence of geographic discontinuity, but some of the gaps in the distribution may be a result of insufficient collecting. Leaving aside stem branching, leaf division, and locular epidermis sculpting (for which there are few data), there is no correspondence between geography and variation in adaxial veins or inflorescence branching, except for one subgroup of specimens from sub-Andean Peru. These have raised adaxial veins and mostly branched inflorescences. These specimens differ significantly from all other specimens in eight variables (plant height, number of pinnae, basal pinna width, apical pinna width, rachillae length, rachillae width, fruit length, and fruit diameter)(t-test, P <0.05). Based on this, they are recognized as a separate subspecies (subsp. pascoensis). All other specimens are included in subsp. brongniartii. (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)B

Description

  • Plants 1.5(0.5-3.0) m tall; stems 0.4(0.1-1.0) m tall, 1.7(0.9-3.0) cm in diameter, solitary or clustered, not cane-like; internodes 0.5(0.3-0.8) cm long, not scaly. Leaves 8(4-12) per stem, undivided or irregularly pinnate, not plicate, bases of blades running diagonally into the rachis; sheaths 13.6(5.0-22.0) cm long; petioles 48.3(14.0-90.0) cm long, drying green or yellowish; rachis 53.4(20.0-80.0) cm long, 3.7(1.9-6.2) mm in diameter; veins raised and rectangular in cross-section adaxially or not raised or slightly raised and triangular in cross-section adaxially; pinnae 5(1-19) per side of rachis; basal pinna 30.0(16.0-54.0) cm long, 4.7(0.3-28.5) cm wide, forming an angle of 48(7-97)° with the rachis; apical pinna 21.1(4.5-35.0) cm long, 11.5(2.0-37.5) cm wide, forming an angle of 32(20-52)° with the rachis. Inflorescences unbranched or branched 1 order; prophylls and peduncular bracts ribbed with elongate, unbranched fibers, both bracts tubular, narrow, elongate, closely sheathing the peduncle, more or less persistent; prophylls 19.6(5.7-35.5) cm long, not short and asymmetrically apiculate, the surfaces not ridged, without unequally wide ridges; peduncular bracts 19.4(12.6-31.5) cm long, well-developed, inserted 5.7(0.5-18.5) cm above the prophyll; peduncles 34.6(18.0-64.0) cm long, 2.9(1.5-6.5) mm in diameter; rachillae 1(1-6), 24.4(8.6-46.0) cm long, 3.7(1.7-7.3) mm in diameter, the surfaces without spiky, fibrous projections or ridges, drying brown or yellow-brown, the surfaces without short, transverse ridges, not filiform and not narrowed between the flower pits; flower pits usually spirally arranged, sometimes tricussately, then the groups not closely spaced nor consistently arranged throughout the rachillae, glabrous internally (sometimes some hairs along the proximal and distal lip margins); proximal lips without a central notch before anthesis, not recurved after anthesis, not hood-shaped; proximal and distal lips drying the same color as the rachillae, not joined to form a raised cupule, the proximal lip margins overlapping the distal lip margins; distal lips a scarcely raised rim; staminate and pistillate petals not emergent, not valvate throughout; staminate flowers deciduous after anthesis; stamens 6; thecae diverging at anthesis, inserted almost directly onto the filament apices, the connectives bifid but scarcely developed; anthers short and curled over at anthesis; non-fertilized pistillate flowers deciduous after anthesis; staminodial tubes crenulate or shallowly lobed at the apex, those of non-fertilized flowers not projecting and persistent after anthesis; fruits 6.8(5.3?8.3) mm long, 5.7(4.5-6.5) mm in diameter, the bases without a prominent stipe, the apices not conical, the surfaces not splitting at maturity, without fibers emerging, bumpy from the numerous, subepidermal, tangential, short fibers present, these coming to a point at fruit apices; locular epidermis without operculum, smooth or sculpted and then usually also with a raised, meridional ridge, without pores. (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)B

Use Record

  • Geonoma brongniartii Mart.: Construcción. Techos. (Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y., Guía de plantas útiles de la comunidad de San José de Uchupiamonas. 2001)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/ABolivia
  • Geonoma brongniartii Mart.: For thatch, better than "canambo" (= Attalea butyracea). (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousSecoyaEcuador
  • Geonoma brongniartii Mart.: Geonoma brongniartii Mart. Español: Ponilla, Palmiche Usos: Medicinal y cosmético — Su flor tiene un fragancia muy agradable y sirve como perfume. Construcción — Las hojas se utilizan en los techos de las viviendas. Comunidad: 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 12, 13, 15–17, 19–30. Voucher: H. Balslev 6606. (Balslev, H., C. Grandez, et al., Useful palms (Arecaceae) near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon. 2008)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/APeru
    CulturalCosmeticsInflorescenceNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Geonoma brongniartii Mart.: Geonoma brongniartii Mart. Vernacular name: Paguman bengana. Voucher: Macía et al. #2806. Uses. CO: Leaves are used for thatch. (Macía, M.J., Multiplicity in palm uses by the Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
  • Geonoma brongniartii Mart.: Las hojas se usan para techar viviendas; las raíces se usa como escoba. (Cerón, C.E., C.G. Montalvo, J. Umenda et al., Etnobotánica y notas sobre la diversidad vegetal en la comunidad Cofán de Sinangüé, Sucumbíos, Ecuador. 1994)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousCofánEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticRootIndigenousCofánEcuador
  • Geonoma brongniartii Mart.: Leaves used for thatch. (Báez, S., and Å. Backevall, Dictionary of plants used by the Shuar of Makuma and Mutints. 1998)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Geonoma brongniartii Mart.: Techado. Hoja. (Cerón, C.E., A. Payaguaje, D. Payaguaje et al., Etnobotánica Secoya. 2005)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousSecoyaEcuador
  • Geonoma brongniartii Mart.: Thatch. (Shepard, G.H., D.W. Yu, M. Lizarralde, et al., Rain forest habitat classification among the Matsigenka of the Peruvian Amazon. 2001)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousMatsigenkaPeru
  • Geonoma brongniartii Mart.: Thatching. (Moraes, M., J. Sarmiento,and E. Oviedo, Richness and uses in a diverse palm site in Bolivia. 1995)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/ABolivia

Bibliography

A. World Checklist of Arecaceae
B. Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.