Hyphaene coriacea Gaertn., Fruct. Sem. Pl. 1: 28 (1788)

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Introduction

  • A common species at low altitudes in the West. This species occurs in continental Africa and some islands between Madagascar and Africa in the same habitat; it is one of the few palms which occurs both in Madagascar and elsewhere, but we believe it is native. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Ethiopiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Kenyapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
KwaZulu-Natalpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Madagascarpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Malawipresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Mozambiquepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Northern Provincespresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Somaliapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Tanzaniapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
W Madagascar. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Littoral or inland, in grassland or wooded grassland, especially on sand; slight slope or on the flat; able to withstand fire, and sometimes locally common; 1-300 m. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Conservation

  • Not threatened: widespread and common. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Common Name

  • Satrana (Antankarana, Sakalava); Sata (Sakalava, fide Hildebrandt). (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Uses

  • Leaf fibres used in basketry, hat-making, rope-making. Palm heart edible. Sometimes used to make palm wine. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Description

  • Clustering palm, often seeming solitary, in groups of 2-6. TRUNK 1-6 m high, 10-20 cm diam., usually unbranched but occasionally branched, clothed in old leaf-bases, with distinctive criss-cross pattern. LEAVES 9-20 in the crown, porrect or spreading with the rachis recurved, to 1.8 m, and to c. 9 marcescent ones; sheath open, split at the base for up to 40 cm, 38-40 cm long, waxy, brown, with fibrous margins; petiole 60-97 cm long, proximally 4-6 x c. 3 cm, mid-way flattened, c. 2 cm wide with black triangular spines to 1 cm long and curved towards the distal end, distally 1-3.5 x 1.5 cm, pale brown, waxy, with scattered scales; adaxial hastula an oblique, erose fringe to 6 mm high; costa 27- 60 cm long; lamina c. 70 cm long, 112 cm wide, with 39-55 segments, the sinuses with conspicuous filaments, outer folds 31-48 x 1.2-2.6 cm, divided to the base or unsplit for 2-7 cm, more inner ones to 63-82 x 4-5 cm, unsplit for up to 20 cm, central folds 40-58 x 1.2-4 cm, unsplit for 7-9 cm, main veins 1-2, apices attenuate and bifid over 1-1.5 cm, midrib with dense to scattered dark brown and grey scales, the faint parallel minor veins with scattered reddish scales. STAMINATE INFLORESCENCES interfoliar, branched to 2 orders; rachillae solitary or in groups of 2-4, 9-36 cm long, 0.7-1.2 cm diam., the rachillar axes waxy and with reddish scales; bracts 2-3 x 3-3.5 mm, densely stellate-hairy. STAMINATE FLOWERS with sepals imbricate, 2.5-3 x 0.8-1.6 mm, narrowly obovate with a rounded apex; corolla greenish, the stalk 1-2 mm high, the lobes 2-2.8 x 1.5-1.8 mm, (slightly) spathulate and hooded, rounded; stamens with filaments 0.8-1.8 mm and thin, connate with their fleshy bases, anthers 1-1.8 x 0.6-0.8 mm, dorsifixed, versatile, yellow; pistillode not seen. PISTILLATE INFLORESCENCES interfoliar, 60-120 cm long, branched to 1 order with 2-5 rachillae, pendulous in fruit; peduncle 43-56 cm long with 4-5 bracts; bracts 17-19 cm long and distally scaly; rachillae with the stalk c. 20 cm long, the fertile part 14-21 cm long, 0.8-1.2 mm diam. PISTILLATE FLOWERS with the rachilla bract c. 2 mm high, c. 8 mm wide, inside near the base with dense hairs (?from the rachilla); pedicel 0.5-4 mm high, densely pubescent; sepals 3.5-4.5 x 2.2-3.6 mm; petals 2.5-3.7 x 2-3.2 mm, slightly obovate, obtuse with a ciliolate apex; staminodes connate at the base, 1.5-2 mm high, thin; ovary angular-globose, 3.2-3.5 x 2-3.3 mm. FRUIT irregularly top-shaped, 5-6 cm high, 4-6 cm diam., on a densely hairy pedicel up to 12 x 7 mm; mesocarp fibrous; endocarp hard, woody and fibrous. SEED c. 2.7 x 2.7 cm; endosperm homogeneous with central hollow. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Materials Examined

  • Antsiranana: Bay de Rigny, Sept. 1848 (fl.), Boivin 2282 (P). Iharana: 30 km NW of Daraina, June 1992 (fr.), Beentje 4694 (K, TAN). Analalava: Maromandia, June 1923 (fl.), Decary 2111 (P, TAN). Marovoay: Marovoay, sine die (fl.), Perrier 11952 (P); idem, Dec. 1926 (fl.), Perrier 17872 (K, P); 16 km W of Ampijoroa, Dec. 1991 (fl.), Beentje 4552 (BH, K, MO, P, TAN). Ambato Boeni: Anjiajia, Aug. 1952 (fl.), Bosser 3506 (P, TAN). Maevatanana: Tsinjorano near Ikopa R., July 1898 (fl.), Perrier 679 (P). Ihosy: Isalo, Oct. 1924 (fl.), Humbert 2856bis (P). Manja: Beravi, June 1879 (fl., y.fr.), Hildebrandt 3052 (K, P; type of H. hildebrandtii). Betioky: Beza Mahafaly Reserve near Fitanabo, May 1987 (juv.), Phillipson 1767 (P, TAN). LOCALITY UNCLEAR. NW Madagascar, Mananda to Mahabo (?), Sept. 1866 (fl.), Grandidier s.n. (P); N Madagascar, anno 1837 (fl.), Richard 144 (P). Without any locality: Lam & Meeuse 6135 (L, P). (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Bibliography

A. J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae