Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 8 (1823)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Belizepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Guatemalapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Honduraspresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Mexico Gulfpresent (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)B
Mexico Southeastpresent (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)B
Mexico Southwestpresent (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)B
Nicaraguapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A

Discussion

  • Taxonomic notes: - Geonoma interrupta is a member of a group of species characterized by its lack of a distal lip of the flower pit and flower pits hairy internally. This group, the G. interrupta clade, also includes G. euspatha, G. frontinensis, G. pinnatifrons, and G. simplicifrons. These species have had a checkered taxonomic history. Geonoma interrupta has been treated in a broad (e.g., Henderson et al., 1995) or narrower sense (Wessels Boer, 1968). Geonoma interrupta differs from G. euspatha, G. frontinensis, and G. simplicifrons in its prophyll surfaces with unequally wide ridges, and from G. pinnatifrons in its flower pits which are densely hairy internally distally only. Wessels Boer (1968) used rachillae hairs to distinguish G. interrupta from G. pinnatifrons. This was refined somewhat by Hammel et al. (2003) who described G. interrupta as having hairs to ca. 0.15 mm long with at least some branched, and G. pinnatifrons (as G. oxycarpa) as having unbranched hairs 0.1-0.5 mm long. As stated in the Materials and Methods section, rachillae hairs are not used in the present study because potential states can not be scored unequivocally and hairs are early deciduous. However, G. interrupta and G. pinnatifrons can be distinguished by rachillae hairs if rachillae at an early stage are present.

    Subspecific variation: - Two traits vary within this species (stem type, pistillate flower persistence). Excluding stem type, for which there are few data, state distributions of the remaining trait (pistillate flower persistence) divide the specimens into two subgroups. Within each subgroup there is geographic discontinuity. The first subgroup, with persistent pistillate flowers, occurs in the Andes in Colombia, and plants are reported to be rheophytes. This subgroup is recognized as a subspecies (subsp. rivalis). The second subgroup, with deciduous pistillate flowers, has several gaps in its distribution, and there are several potential geographic subgroups. There is considerable variation in several variables (number of pinnae, prophyll length, peduncular bract length, interbract distance) and combining these with geographic division, three subgroups can be recognized: Central America and Colombia (with longer bracts and more pinnae); Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia (shorter bracts and fewer pinnae); and Venezuela and just reaching adjacent Colombia (longer bracts and fewer pinnae). ANOVA shows that for pair wise comparison probabilities, seven variables (stem height, sheath length, rachis length, number of pinnae, prophyll length, peduncular bract length, interbract distance) differ significantly (P <0.05) between one pair of groups, although no variable differs amongst all three groups. Based on these results and geographic discontinuity, the three subgroups are recognized as subspecies (subsp. magnifica from Central America and Colombia, subsp. interrupta from Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, and subsp. purdieana from Venezuela and adjacent Colombia). (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)B

Description

  • Plants 3.7(1.0-8.0) m tall; stems 3.2(0.3-8.0) m tall, 3.7(2.6-5.0) cm in diameter, solitary, not cane-like or cane-like; internodes 1.5(0.8-2.8) cm long, yellowish and smooth. Leaves 13(8-24) per stem, irregularly pinnate, not plicate, bases of blades running diagonally into the rachis; sheaths 28.7(15.0-60.5) cm long; petioles 63.4(9.0-110.0) cm long, drying green or yellowish; rachis 129.6(55.0-200.0) cm long, 8.7(3.8-16.0) mm in diameter; veins raised and rectangular in cross-section adaxially; pinnae 18(4-47) per side of rachis; basal pinna 47.4(23.5-75.5) cm long, 5.7(0.2-27.0) cm wide, forming an angle of 43(24-60)° with the rachis; apical pinna 40.3(23.0-65.5) cm long, 20.3(0.4-39.0) cm wide, forming an angle of 29(14-40)° with the rachis. Inflorescences branched 2-4 orders; prophylls and peduncular bracts not ribbed with elongate, unbranched fibers, flattened, deciduous or persistent; prophylls 20.1(11.5-40.0) cm long, not short and asymmetrically apiculate, the surfaces ridged and densely tomentose with widely to closely spaced ridges, the ridges unequally wide, often dividing from and rejoining other ridges, the prophyll margins with irregular, spine-like projections, the prophylls usually splitting irregularly between the ridges; peduncular bracts 17.8(10.5-25.5) cm long, well-developed, inserted 4.1(1.0-8.0) cm above the prophyll; peduncle 22.7(7.0-34.0) cm long, 13.6(2.5-20.1) mm in diameter; rachillae 71(22-120), 19.1(9.2-29.7) cm long, 2.3(1.3-3.4) mm in diameter, the surfaces without spiky, fibrous projections or ridges, drying brown, with faint to pronounced, short, transverse ridges, not filiform and not narrowed between the flower pits; flower pits spirally arranged, densely hairy internally distally only (rarely some hairs on lateral) margins of the pits; proximal lips without a central notch before anthesis, not recurved after anthesis, hood-shaped at anthesis, sometimes splitting post-anthesis; proximal and distal lips drying the same color as the rachillae, not joined to form a raised cupule, the proximal lip margins overlapping the distal lip margins; distal lips absent; staminate and pistillate petals not emergent, not valvate throughout; staminate flowers deciduous after anthesis; stamens 6; thecae diverging at anthesis, inserted almost directly onto the filament apices, the connectives bifid but scarcely developed; anthers short and curled over at anthesis; non-fertilized pistillate flowers persistent or deciduous after anthesis; staminodial tubes crenulate or shallowly lobed at the apex; staminodial tubes of nonfertilized pistillate flowers not projecting and persistent after anthesis; fruits 5.8(4.4-7.5) mm long, 4.6(3.6-6.3) mm in diameter, the bases without a prominent stipe, the apices not conical, the surfaces not splitting at maturity, without fibers emerging, bumpy from the numerous, subepidermal, tangential, short fibers present, these coming to a point at fruit apices; locular epidermis without operculum, sculpted, usually also with a raised, meridional ridge, without pores. (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)B

Use Record

  • Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.: Alimentación humana. Semilla. (Rios, M., and J. Caballero, Las plantas en la alimentación de la comunidad Ahuano, Amazonía ecuatoriana. 1997)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodBeveragesSeedsIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.: Construcción. Hoja. Techado de viviendas (Macía, M.J., Multiplicity in palm uses by the Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousTacanaBolivia
  • Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.: Esta especie es comestible y las hojas son utilizadas para techos de casas. (Balslev, H., M. Rios, G. Quezada and B. Nantipa, Palmas útiles en la cordillera de los Huacamayos. 1997)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
    Human FoodFoodNot specifiedIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.: Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart. Vernacular name: Ewenparen. Voucher: Macía et al. #505. Uses. CO: Leaves are used for thatch in traditional houses. D: Leaves are used for packing and as a napkin at feasts. (Macía, M.J., Multiplicity in palm uses by the Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticEntire leafIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsWrappersEntire leafIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
  • Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.: LA CASA. Las hojas de turuji y de kampanak se las debe doblar en la mitad. (…). Una vez construido el armazón, se trata de colocar la paja. Para el efecto se utilizan hojas de: chaap´, kuunt, katira, turuji. Las de chaap´son las más usadas. (…). SENTA (Cinta). Utensilios para fabricar la cinta. (Bianchi, C., Artesanías y técnicas Shuar. 1982)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousAchuarEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsLabour toolsStemIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.: Las hojas son usadas para techado. (Moraes, M., Contribución al estudio del ciclo biológico de la palma Copernicia alba en un área ganadera (Espíritu, Beni, Bolivia). 1991)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/ABolivia
  • Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.: Leaves are used for thatching traditional houses. (Báez, S., Dictionary of plants used by the Canelos-Quichua. 1998)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.: Los frutos los comen los guatines. Los frutos comen los pájaros pequeños. Las hojas se usan para techar viviendas. (Cerón, C.E., and C.G. Montalvo, Etnobotánica de los Huaorani de Quehueiri-Ono, Napo-Ecuador. 1998)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Animal FoodWildlife attractantFruitsIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
  • Geonoma interrupta (Ruiz & Pav.) Mart.: The stem is used for cleaning shotguns. Leaves are used for thatch. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousShuarEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousSionaEcuador

Bibliography

A. World Checklist of Arecaceae
B. Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.