Aiphanes ulei (Dammer) Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 11: 568 (1932)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_5137_2.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Found in the upper Amazon and on the eastern Andean slopes from southern Colombia to Peru, extending into the westernmost parts of Brazil, reaching 1850 m altitude in central Ecuador, and ca. 1000 m in northern Peru. The species is one of the most widely distributed and most frequently collected in the genus. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A

Habitat

  • Often common, though never abundant, in primary rain forest, sometimes also in patches of disturbed or even secondary forest. In Ecuador the species is found both on terra firme and in temporarily flooded forest. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A

Discussion

  • Two forms of this species appear to exist. The first is acaulescent and has white flowers, the other has a well developed aerial stem and yellow flowers. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)C
  • Aiphanes ulei; is characteristic in its solitary, often acaulescent habit; cuneate, paired pinnae, greyish to silverish green on the abaxial side; and especially inflorescences with strongly appressed rachillae that bear densely packed flower groups abaxially and no flowers adaxially. The only other species with such inflorescences is A. gelatinosa, from southwestern Colombia and adjacent Ecuador, which differs in having much larger, often multiple inflorescences; and linear to narrowly cuneate pinnae, regularly inserted or in lax groups of 2-4.
    The original collection of A. ulei (Ule 116b) from Cerro de Escalero near Tarapoto in the department of San Martín, Peru, is lost, and no isotypes exist. And unfortunately, the only existing collection from the type locality (Moore 8529) is sterile. As neotype we have instead chosen a specimen from Genaro Herrera on the Río Ucayali in the department of Loreto (Kahn & Mejia 1916), some 250 km east northeast of the type locality. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95) (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A

Common Name

  • Jimena tfué ("chontaduro de nutria"; Colombia, Witoto); pa m si mo ha (Ecuador, Kofán); chontilla (Ecuador). (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A

Description

  • Solitary. Stem 0-6 m tall, 2.5-5 cm diam., armed with black spines, to 7 cm long. Leaves 6-15, erect and arching; sheath 20-35 cm long, densely armed with black spines; petiole 5-70 cm long, with a thin, dark brown, caducous indument, armed as the sheath, less toward apex; rachis 60-180 cm long, with an indument like that on petiole, black spinules, and scattered black spines, to 5 cm long; pinnae 9-14 per side, inserted in pairs or rarely triplets separated by 10-20 cm, broadly cuneate, 1-3(-4) times as long as wide, sometimes strongly plicate along secondary veins, incised to bilobulate praemorse at apex, symmetrical around midrib, distal margin ecaudate, adaxial side dark green and glabrous, abaxial side pale greyish to silverish green, glabrous or minutely spinulose; basal pinnae 11-20 x 2-9 cm; middle pinnae 14-34 x 8-19 cm; apical pinnae 2-5 ribbed, 22-25 x 5-26 cm. Inflorescence interfoliar, erect, normally exserted above crown, all parts with a thin, dark brown, scaly indument; prophyll 21-32 x 1-3 cm; peduncular bract 65-100 cm long, unarmed, soon disintegrating; peduncle 50-100 cm long, 5-10 mm diam. at junction with rachis, densely armed with black or brown spines, to 1(-3) cm long, rarely almost unarmed; rachis 20-40 cm long, unarmed except at base; rachillae 30-40, strongly appressed to rachis, with densely packed flower groups abaxially, without flowers adaxially, covered with minute spinules; basal rachillae 10-15 cm long, adnate to rachis for 3-5 cm or sometimes all their length, with flowers from base, the proximal ? with triads, in this part thickened and flattened, 6-7 mm wide, the remaining part more slender, 1-3 mm wide, with staminale dyads or singles; apical rachillae 1-4 cm long, staminate, briefly adnate to rachis, somewhat spreading, distally with flowers on all sides; flower groups sunken into pits, subtended by fused bracts, forming a rim around the pit. Staminate flowers white to yellow, ca. 1 mm long; sepals cap-shaped, carinate, in bud almost completely enclosing the petals, 1-1.5 mm long; pelals almost free, valvale, 1-1.5 mm long; filaments 0.5-1 mm long, anthers nearly square, 0.5-0.6 x 0.5-0.7 mm; pistillode minute, sunken into the swollen receptacle. Pistillate flowers 2-3 mm long; sepals imbricate. ca. 2 mm long; petals connate ½, valvate distally, 2-2.5 mm long; staminodial cup ca. 1 mm high, nearly truncate; pistil 1.5-2 mm high, glabrous. Fruits globose, strongly rostrate, ca. 7 mm in diam., rostrum 1-2 mm long. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A

Materials Examined

  • COLOMBIA. AMAZONAS: Quebrada Perico, an affluent of Río Igará-Paraná, 25 km S of Los Monos on Río Caquetá, 300 m, 19 Aug 1988 (st), Galeano et al. 1494 (COL); 20 Aug 1988 (fem fl), Galeano &, Angulo 1510 (COL). CAQUETÁ: Morelia, 350 m, 30 Oct 1941 (infl), Sneidern 1260 (S); 15 km N of San Antonio Getuchá, 350 m, 1 Feb 1988 (st), Bernal & Galeano 1406 (COL)
    ECUADOR. MORONA-SANTIAGO: Rd. Macas-Alshi (9 de Octubre), km 8-9 from General Proano, 1400 m, 15 Jul 1985 (fl, imm fr), Balslev & Henderson 60658 (AAU); rd. Plan de Milagro-Gualaceo, km 2, 1850 m, 26 Sep 1987 (infl), Skov, Borchsenius, et al. 64715 (AAU); near Taisha, vicinity of Centro Tuutin Entsa, 330 m, 18 Sep 1985 (infl), Anananch RBAE223 (NY); trail Taisha-Cangaime, I hr. walk W of Taisha, 400 m, 13 May 1986 (fl, fr), Balslev et al. 62200 (AAU. NY); same trail, 30 km SE of Río Pastaza. 400-600 m, 22 Mar 1986, Baker 6805 (NY); rd. Mendez Morona, km 3 past Santiago, 450 m. 27 Nov 1989 (st), Borchsenius & Pedersen 91435 (AAU, QCA, QCNE). NAPO: Estacion Experimental INIAP-Napo, 5 km N of Coca. 250 m, 3 Jul 1986 (st), Palacios et al. 1174 (AAU); same region, Reserva Faunistica EI Chuncho, 6 Oct 1987 (st), Cerón & Palacios 2381 (AAU); rd. Coca-Loreto, km 2-10, Río Payamino, 250 m, 14 Dec 1987 (sl), Cerón & Palacios 3032 (MO); Añangu, 4 hr. downstream from Coca, S bank of Río Napo, 300 m, 25 Jun 1985 (infl), Skov & Pedersen 60601 (AAU); Aug 1985 (fem fl), Balslev el al. 60733 (AAU); (juv), 60581, 60742 (AAU); 11 Apr 1986 (infl), Balslev el al. 62045 (AAU); 4 Nov 1987 (fl, fem fl), Skov, Borchsenius, et al. 64787 (AAU); laguna Pañacocha, 200 m, 19 Apr 1987 (infl), Balslev 62473 (A AU); same region, 2-3 km NE of village. 300 m. 6 Nov 1987 (infl), Skov, Borchsenius, el al. 64795 (AAU); Yasuní National Park, oil well Daimi, 200 m, 1 Jun 1988 (fl), Cerón & Hurtado 4268 (MO); same region, Daimi II, 29 May 1988 (st), Bergmann & Lægaard 67217 (AAU); 30 May 1988 (fl), BergmanfJ & Lægaard 67220 (AAU, QCA); between Tena and Archidona, 400 m, 9 Oct 1939 (fl, imm fr), Asplund 9174 (S); Misahuallí, 2-3 km N of the village, 3 Apr 1987 (st), Balslev 62480 (AAU); Reserva Biológica Jatun Sacha, km 8 from Misahuallí, 500 m, 18 Dec 1986 (imm fr), Hammel 15984 (MO); 8 Nov 1987, Cerón 2621 (MO); 30 Apr 1991 (fl), Ponce 108 (QCA). PASTAZA: S bank of Río Pastaza, opposite Mera, ca. 2 km E of bridge crossing the river, 1300 m. 25 Oct 1987 (infl), Skov & Borchsenius 64776 (AAU); rd. from Mera-Madre Tierra, km 5, 1150 m, 27 Oct 1987 (infl). Skov & Bochsenius 64780 (AAU); rd. Puyo-Arajuno, about 10 km E of Diez de Agosto, 1200 m, 28 Sep 1983, Balslev & Balslev 4418 (NY); same rd., 21 km NE of Puyo-Macas rd., 3/4 hr. walk from EI Triunfo, 1250 m, 24 Oct 1987 (st), Skov & Borchsenius 64771 (AAU). SUCUMBIOS: Dureno on Río Aguarico, 300 m, 10 May 1966 (infl), Pinkley 486 (BH, ECON); 30 Dec 1987 (infl), Cerón & Cerón 3116 (MO); Reserva Faunistica Cuyabeno, Laguna Grande, 300 m, 27 Apr 1986 (juv). Balslev et al. 62067 (AAU); 9 Dec 1987 (infl), Blicher-Mathiesen & Bang-Klitgaard 62606 (AAU); 19 Apr 1988 (infl), Balslev 69053 (AAU). TUNGU-RAHUA: rd. Baños-Mera, km 35, 1450-1550 m, 4 Sep 1976 (infl), Øllgaard & Balslev 9306 (NY).
    PERU. LORETO: Prov. Maynas, Yanomamo, Explorama Tourist Camp on Río Amazonas between Indiana and mouth of Río Napa. 120 m. 27 Jul 1980 (st), Gentry el al. 29148 (MO); Prov. Requena, Genaro Herrera, 180 m, 8 Nov 1982, Mejía 125 (USM); same region, km 15 along the stream "Copal" (fl), Kahn & Mejia 2060 (USM). SAN MARTÍN: Prov. San Martín, rd. Tarapoto-Yurimaguas, km 20, Cerro de Escalero, 980 m, 26 May 1960 (topotype, st), Moore et al. 8529 (BH, USM).
    BRAZIL. ACRE: Mun. Mancio Lima, upper Rio Moa near Igaparé Vitor, 14 Oct 1989 (fr), Henderson et al. 1133 (NY). AMAZONAS: Mun. Atalaia do Norte, Rio Javary, frontier between Brazil and Peru, Estirão do Ecuador, 150 m, 8 Jan 1989 (st). Henderson et al. 846 (NY); 11 Jan 1989 (fl), Henderson et al. 868 (NY). (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A

Use Record

  • Aiphanes ulei (Dammer) Burret: A decoction of the palm heart is drunk against body pains. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Medicinal and VeterinarySkin and subcutaneous tissuePalm heartIndigenousSionaEcuador
  • Aiphanes ulei (Dammer) Burret: Aiphanes ulei (Dammer) Burret Vernacular name: Titequiwe (adult). Vouchers: Macía et al. #385; Macía et al. #634. Uses. CU: The stem is used to make personal war spears for their dances in traditional feasts and rituals. HF: The stem is used to make improvised hunting spears. Blowgun darts are carved from the stem in lack of other materials. M: Decoction of the adventitous roots is drunk against colds, headache, body pain and shaking. A decoction of the crushed palm-heart is drunk to cure colds and bad cough. (Macía, M.J., Multiplicity in palm uses by the Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Medicinal and VeterinaryCultural diseases and disordersRootIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    Medicinal and VeterinaryNervous system and mental healthRootIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    Medicinal and VeterinaryRespiratory systemPalm heartIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    Medicinal and VeterinaryRespiratory systemRootIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    CulturalRitualStemIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
  • Aiphanes ulei (Dammer) Burret: Edible fruits and palm heart. (Báez, S., and Å. Backevall, Dictionary of plants used by the Shuar of Makuma and Mutints. 1998)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousShuarEcuador
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Aiphanes ulei (Dammer) Burret: El palmito de esta palma es consumido ocasionalmente y se le conoce como "urpi yuyu". El oso de anteojos (Tremarctos ornatus) ha sido observado consumiendo el palmito por algunos habitantes de la zona. (Balslev, H., M. Rios, G. Quezada and B. Nantipa, Palmas útiles en la cordillera de los Huacamayos. 1997)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Aiphanes ulei (Dammer) Burret: Medicinal. Raíz. Ritual. Espina. (Cerón, C.E., A. Payaguaje, D. Payaguaje et al., Etnobotánica Secoya. 2005)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Medicinal and VeterinaryNot specified at allRootIndigenousSecoyaEcuador
    CulturalRitualSpinesIndigenousSecoyaEcuador
  • Aiphanes schultzeana Burret: Medicinal, comestible. Las raíces (Titequehuei) se cocinan en 1/2 litro de agua hasta que esta hierva. De la preparación, de sabor agrio, se toma una cucharadita dos veces al día durante tres días. Esto sirve para calmar la tos (Ena) y mejorar los síntomas de un estado gripal (Koyo). Algunas veces también se usan las semillas cocidas en agua para la gripe y la tos. (Mondragón, M.L., and R. Smith, Bete Quiwiguimamo. Salvando el bosque para vivir sano. 1997 (as Aiphanes schultzeana Burret))
  • Aiphanes schultzeana Burret: The seeds are used as projectiles for shotguns. (Bennett, B.C., M.A. Baker, and P. Gómez-Andrade, Ethnobotany of the Shuar of Eastern Ecuador. 2002 (as Aiphanes schultzeana Burret))

Bibliography

A. Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae
C. Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador