Ceroxylon vogelianum (Engel) H.Wendl., Palmiers : 239 (1878)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ceroxylon vogelianum is widely distributed through the Andes from Venezuela to Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru, in humid montane forest, at (1900-)2200-2900 m. Although it is one of the most common palms of the high tropical Andes, it never forms extense stands, and is commonly sparse on mountain ridges. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Venezuela to Bolivia in the Andes. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

  • Plants from S Ecuador, where the species is common, are relatively small compared to what is usual for the species (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Ceroxylon vogelianum is, together with C. parvifrons, the most frequent and widely distributed species of Ceroxylon. It is unmistakable by its small size, with slender, usually greenish or brownish stem, leaves ascending, with pinnae arranged in groups and inserted in very divergent planes, staminate flowers with 6 stamens on slender filaments, and fruits with the very characteristic reticulate sulcate exocarp. The specimens from Bolivia that had been determined as C. vogelianum actually correspond to C. pityrophyllum (see comments under this species), therefore C. vogelianum is not found in this country, although several texts report it. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Conservation

  • In Venezuela, C. vogelianum has been recorded as Endangered (EN) according to the IUCN criteria, mainly due to deforestation practices along the Andes (Llamosas et al. 2003). In Colombia the species was only considered Near Threatened (NT; Galeano et al. 2005) because of its wide distribution, but more studies need to be done related to the population dynamics and reproductive biology of this species, as it is expected to be endangered due to the deforestation process due to agricultural activity in the Andes of Colombia. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Common Name

  • Palma de ramo, chile (Santander, Colombia), chonta (fruit; Antioquia, Colombia), palma de ramo criolla (Boyacá, Colombia); gallinazo, palma negra (Norte de Santander, Colombia), palma de cera (Venezuela). (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Uses

  • The new leaves are cut for Palm Sunday during Easter, and the stems are used to build fences and houses. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Description

  • Understorey or subcanopy palm. Stem solitary, to 10 m tall, ca. 10 cm in diameter, greenish grey, with dark leaf scars. Leaves 1-1.5 m long; pinnae 70-80 on each side, inserted in groups and spreading in different planes, with pendulous distal half, the central ones 30-40 cm long, 20-25 mm wide, below with a thin, light grey to brown wax layer. Inflorescences curved, becoming pendulous in fruit, 120-160 cm long, branched 2 times. Male flowers with 6 stamens. Fruits globose, bluish green, often becoming dull orange just before dropping, slightly warty, 13-15 mm in diameter. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stem 3-13(-17) m tall, 12-25 cm diameter, rarely flexuous toward the apex, green to silverish, covered with a very thin layer of wax.
    Leaves 6-18, in a very variable but always untidy, hemispheric crown; sheath (32-)50-90(-130) cm long, 2.5 cm wide; petiole (15-)24-75 cm long, 2-5 cm wide at apex, adaxially glabrescent with remnant of scales, abaxially with brown-grayish indumentum, sometimes almost glabrescent; rachis (38-)77-140(-210) cm long, adaxially flattened in basal ½ of its lenght that end in a small almost unconspicuous hastula-like projection, glabrescent, abaxial surface convex, covered with scales degraded into flexuous threads, and persistent 0.2-0.6 mm elliptical bases, arranged in adjacent, 0.2-0.3 mm wide rows; pinnae 46-80(-129) on each side of rachis, arranged in groups of 2-10 pinnae, separated by 2.0-6.5(-12.0) cm, and inserted in divergent planes, specially towards the base and the middle of the leaf, adaxial surface glabrescent, abaxial surface and midrib covered with elliptical to linear, very thin and narrow, translucent, cream scales, the basal, filiform pinnae 8.5-50 × 0.2-0.5 mm, basal pinnae (10th from base) 20-58(-89) × 0.7-2.2 cm, middle pinnae 23-75(-95) × (1.1-)2.2-3.5(-4.5) cm, apical pinnae 11-37 × 0.1-0.8 cm, not connate along margins.
    Staminate inflorescences 5-7 at one time, peduncle 125 cm long, 2.5 cm wide at apex; prophyll 26 cm; peduncular bracts at least 6, 54-106 × 5-8 cm, with an additional smaller, 7 cm bract inserted at the apex of the peduncle; rachis 34.5 cm long, with about 40 branches, each subtended by a 0.5-3.0 cm long, thin and narrow, membranaceous, acuminate bract, rachis and branches glabrescent, longest branches near base, 15.5-33.0 cm long.
    Pistillate inflorescences 1-5 at one time; peduncle 77-150(-248) cm long, 2.0-4.0 cm wide at apex; prophyll 17-45 cm long; peduncular bracts 5-7, 25-187 × 4-13 cm; rachis (22-)52-62(-100) cm long, with ca. 31-53 branches, each subtended by a 0.2-1.5 cm membranous bract, longest branches in basal half, (12-)20-51 cm long; prophyll, peduncle, bracts and base of rachis covered with persistent, brown to ferrugineous, intermixed fibres of interlocked scales with minute round, 0.1 mm bases, arranged in troughs formed in between veins, rachillae glabrous.
    Staminate flowers: sepals 3, elliptical-long acuminate, 0.8-1.5 mm long, connate for 0.2 mm (1/4-1/7 of total length), reaching or almost reaching the total length of corolla tube; petals 3, elliptical-long acuminate like sepals, 4.5-5.5 mm long, connate in 1.0-1.5 mm, acumen 1.5-2.5 mm long; stamens 6, alternating 1 antisepalous, and 1 antipetalous stamen, filaments 1.0-1.5 mm long, inserted at basal 2/5 to central portion of anther, anthers 1.6-2.5 mm long, anther connective not projected; pistillode trifid, minute.
    Pistillate flowers: sepals 3, broadly-triangular, narrowly acuminate, 1.0-1.5 mm long, connate for 0.4-0.7 mm (½ of total length), not reaching corolla tube, petals 3, elliptical, very narrowly acuminate to subulate, 5-6 mm long, connate for up to 1.0-2.0 mm, acumen narrow, 1.5-2.0 mm long; staminodes 6, 1 antisepalous, 1 antipetalous, filaments 1.5 mm long, broad at base, then narrowing at tip, abortive anthers 0.9-1.2 mm long, pistil green, trifid, 2-3 mm diam.
    Fruits globose, orange-red when ripe, 1.6-2.0 cm diam., exocarp reticulate sulcate, furrowed; perianth persistent, sepals in a swollen coriaceous ring around pedicel, 0.8-1.5 mm high, not reaching total height of the corolla tube, petals elliptical-acuminate, 3-6 cm long, including a 1-2 mm acumen, connate in 1.0-1.5 mm, staminodes with very thick filaments that are broadened at base, and with no remaining abortive anthers at this point.
    Seeds 1.1-1.6 cm diam. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Materials Examined

  • COLOMBIA. Antioquia: Municipality of San José, vereda Valmaría, Hacienda La María, valley of the San Andrés River, tributary to Cauca River, ca. 2600 m, 15 October 1979, R. Bernal & G. Galeano 52 (fr.) (COL); Municipality of Peque, Vereda La Tumba (Road Uramita?Peque, Km 45-48), 2500-2650 m, 2 April 1983, R. Bernal & G. Galeano 566 (fr.) (COL). Boyacá: Municipality of Arcabuco, 3 km on the Road to La Palma, 2700 m, March 1987, R. Bernal & G. Galeano 1337 (fr.) (COL). Cauca: El Tambo, PNN Munchique, Road La Cabaña de La Romelia-El Observatorio, 2° 38' N, 76° 54', 2600-2700 m, 22 June 2001, R. Bernal et al. 2871 (immat.fr.) (COL). Huila-Caquetá: Eastern Cordillera, on the dividing range, in Gabinete, 2300-2450 m., 22 March 1940, J. Cuatrecasas 8508 (st.fl.) (COL). Nariño: Municipality of Pasto, Corregimiento Encano, Vereda Santa Teresita, 11 May 2003, N. Rodríguez & J. Castro 1 (fr.) (COL, PSO). Norte de Santander: 60 km from Ábrego on the Road to Villacaro, 2600 m, 26 March 1978, R. Bernal & G. Galeano 1372 (fr.) (COL). Putumayo: South side of the Laguna de la Cocha, quebrada de Santa Lucía, 2850 m alt., 8 January 1941, J. Cuatrecasas 11842 (immat.fr.) (COL); Sibundoy, 2400 m alt., 28 October 1946, M. B. & R. Foster 1961 (immat.fr.) (BH, COL); Sibundoy valley, 1 km S of Sibundoy, ca. 2200 m, 14 August 1963, M.L. Bristol 1302 (mat.fr.) (BH); Sibundoy Valley, Santiago, Vereda Tonjoy, 2500 m, 13 June 2000, R. Bernal et al. 2475, 2478 (fr.) (COL). Quindío: Municipality of Salento, Vereda Cocora, Farm La Botánica, 5 June 1996, W. Vargas 3210 (immat. fr.) (COL). Risaralda: Municipality of Santuario, Vereda "Las Colonias", 400 m up from the camp, 2910 m, 2 February 1983, J. Torres et al. 1472 (sterile) (COL). Santander: Corregimiento de Virolín, Farm "La Sierra", 2500-2600 m, 17 May 1976, G. Lozano et al. 2598(immat.fr.) (COL). Valle: Farallones de Cali, river beds of River Pance, East slopes, Cuchilla del Hato Viejo, 2800 m, 25 August 1991, E. Calderón 98A (st.fl.) (COL). ECUADOR. Loja: Loja-Zamora road, 2-7 km W of the pass, disturbed montane forest, 79° 10' W, 3° 59' S, 2400-2700 m, 17 June 1979, A. B. Lojtnant & U. Molau 15029 (immat. fr.) (AAU). Napo: Cerro de Huacamayas, 32 km South of Baeza along road to Tena, montane forest (77°51' W, 00°40' S), 1950 m, 4 May 1986, H. Balslev & A. Henderson 62085 (st.fl.) (AAU); road Baeza-Tena, 9 km S of Cosanga, Cordillera of Huacamayos, steep slopes with shruby vegetation and scattered large trees, 2200 m, 8 May 1987, H. Balslev et al. 62506 (mat.fr.) (AAU, COL). Santiago-Zamora: Along quebrada Honda, vicinity of rancho Achupallas, 2500-2700 m, 10 October 1943, J. Steyermark 54580 (st.fl.) (AAU). Zamora-Chinchipe:Yangana-Valladolid road km 28, 79° 07'W 04° 29' S, wet montane forest recently cut and burned, 2500 m, 24 January 1987, A. Barfod et al. 60178 (mat.fr.) (AAU, COL, MECN, QCA). PERU. Cuzco: La Convención, Echarati, East Río Apurimac, NE of Pueblo Libre, up mountain of Anchihuay & Bellavista, South of Cordillera Vilcabamba, 2445 m, 12°51' S 73°30' W, 3 August 1998, P. Núñez et al. 23471,23689 (USM, US). Huánuco:On west-facing steep slopes 1.8-4 km below Carpish (Acomayo side) on road from Acomayo to Chinchao, 2550-2700 m, 24 April 1960, H. E. Moore et al. 8326(fr.) (BH). Pasco: Oxapampa-Cerro de Pasco road, 20-30 km of Oxapampa, at 2000-2500 m, ca. 10°40' S, 75°55' W, 3 March 1983, A. Gentry et al. 39939 (immat.fr.) (MO); Province Oxapampa, District Huancabamba, Cordillera Yanachaga, ridge SE of Cooperativa 3 de Mayo, 10°27' S, 75°26' W, ca. 2000 m, 24 May 1989, A. Henderson et al. 1035 (fr.) (COL, NY).VENEZUELA. Estado Lara: Cloud forest, 9°47' N, 69°33' W, between Cubiro and Escalera, 10-15 km SE of Cubiro, Distrito Menez., 1600-2000 m , 7 July 1974, J. Steyermark et al. 110243 (fr.) (BH); Táchira: Road El Delgadito-Pregonero near las Helicias,aprox. 8°05' N 71°53' W, 2650 m, 1 March 1968, J.G. Wessels-Boer et al. 2429 (mat.fr.) (NY, MER) 2430(mat.fr.) (NY, MER). (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Use Record

  • Ceroxylon vogelianum (Engel) H.Wendl.: Ceroxylon vogelianum (coco), a solitary palm with grey trunk is found between 2000 and 3000 m. The small green fruits (1.5 cm diameter) are edible and the leaves are used for thatching. (Van den Eynden, V., E. Cueva, and O. Cabrera, Edible palms of Southern Ecuador. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafMestizoN/AEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsMestizoN/AEcuador
  • Ceroxylon vogelianum (Engel) H.Wendl.: Hojas cortadas para domingo de ramos; troncos usados para techos y construcción de casas locales. (Moraes, M., Contribución al estudio del ciclo biológico de la palma Copernicia alba en un área ganadera (Espíritu, Beni, Bolivia). 1991)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchStemNot identifiedN/ABolivia
    ConstructionHousesStemNot identifiedN/ABolivia
    CulturalRitualEntire leafNot identifiedN/ABolivia
  • Ceroxylon vogelianum (Engel) H.Wendl.: Sus tallos son usados para horcones de construcciones rústicas, en corrales para el ganado y sus hojas, en fiestas de Semana santa como palma bendita. (Moreno Suárez, L., and O.I. Moreno Suárez, Colecciones de las palmeras de Bolivia. 2006)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemNot identifiedN/ABolivia
    CulturalRitualEntire leafNot identifiedN/ABolivia
  • Ceroxylon vogelianum (Engel) H.Wendl.: Tres especies son utilizadas en los rituales o festejos ceremoniales locales; las hojas jóvenes de Ceroxylon parvifrons y C. vogelianum (ramo), son extraidas para los festejos del Domingo de Ramos. (Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y., Guía de plantas útiles de la comunidad de San José de Uchupiamonas. 2001)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    CulturalRitualEntire leafNot identifiedN/ABolivia
  • Ceroxylon flexuosum Galeano & R.Bernal: Los estipes son ocasionalmente empleados para la construcción de cercas. Las hojas jóvenes son cortadas y vendidas como "ramo bendito" en el Domingo de Ramos. (Galeano, G., R. Bernal, Palmas del Departamento de Antioquia, Región de Antioquia, Región Occidental. 1987 (as Ceroxylon flexuosum Galeano & R.Bernal))

Bibliography

A. Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador
B. Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011)
C. World Checklist of Arecaceae