Ceroxylon parvum Galeano, Caldasia 17: 403 (1995)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Ecuadorpresent (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B
Southwestern cordillera of the Ecuadorian Andes, at 1500 m elevation, in premontane forests. It is only known as isolated individuals, not forming large populations, and usually kept standing on pastures. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

The Andes of SW Ecuador and NW Peru (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

  • This species resembles C. pityrophyllum, and some specimens that had been determined as C. parvum are here placed under C. pityrophyllum. However, C. parvum has slender filaments (of the staminodes), and staminodes that vary in number from 7-11, whereas C. pityrophyllum has broad-based filaments of the staminodes, and stamens and staminodes are always six in number. Apparently, C. parvum is a species that does not form large stands, while C. pityrophyllum does. It grows far from C. pityrophyllum, and only on the Western slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Description

  • Subcanopy palm. Stem solitary, to 10 m tall, 10-20 cm in diameter, greenish grey to grey. Leaves 1.5-2.5 meters long; pinnae 90-120 on each side, inserted in groups of 2-6 or sometimes more and spreading in different planes, but leaf not strongly bushy; central pinnae 50-80 cm long and 2-3 cm wide, below with a thin, silverish layer of wax. Inflorescences curving to pendulous, 1.5-2 m long, branched 3 times. Fruits globose, 12-20 mm in diameter, smooth, bright orange-red, with two aborted carpels slightly developed and visible. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stem 2.5-6.0 m tall, 9-28 cm diam, white at base and turning green towards apex, covered with a very thin layer of wax.
    Leaves 11, in a dense, spherical crown, with dead leaves hanging; sheath 78 cm long, adaxially glabrescent, abaxially covered with a deciduous layer of scales; petiole 10 cm long, covered with indumentum like that of the sheath; rachis 168 cm long, adaxially flattened in ½ of its length, glabrescent, abaxial surface covered with deciduous, membranous scales; pinnae 102-109 on each side, arranged in groups of 2-6, abaxial surface and midrib covered with elliptical, yellowish, 1 mm scales, with 0.3-0.5 mm bases, and arranged in adjacent 0.25 mm wide rows.
    Staminate inflorescences not seen.
    Female inflorescences 4 at one time; peduncle 133 cm long, 1.5 cm wide at apex; prophyll 30 cm long, 7.5 cm wide at base; peduncular bracts 5, 47-155 cm long; rachis 65 cm long, with ca. 55 branches, each subtended by a 0.2-0.6 cm membranous bract; longest branches 31 cm long; prophyll, peduncle, bracts and base of rachis covered with brown, persistent, lepidote indumentum, rachillae glabrous.
    Pistillate flowers: sepals 3, broadly-triangular-acuminate, 1.0-1.5 mm long, connate in 0.6-1.0 mm (½-2/3 of total length), not reaching corolla tube, petals 3, elliptical-acuminate, 5.0-6.5 mm long, including an acumen of 2-3 mm long, connate up to 1.2-2.0 mm; staminodes (7-)9-11, 1 antisepalous, 2?3 antipetalous, filaments 1 mm long, abortive anthers 0.9-1.2 mm long, pistil green, trifid, 2-3 mm diam.
    Fruits globose, orange-red when ripe, 1-2 cm diam., exocarp smooth to slightly warted; fruiting perianth with sepals triangular-acuminate, 1.0-1.5 mm long, connate in 0.3-1.0, lobes not reaching or reaching the corolla tube; petals ovate-acuminate, connate in 0.3-0.7 mm long, widened at base.
    Seeds 1.0-1.2 cm diam. (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Materials Examined

  • ECUADOR. El Oro. Road Loja-Machala, km 13 past Olmedo. Pastures and scrubs in ravines. 3° 54' 28"S 79° 39' 32"W, 1530 m, 12 January 2004, F. Borchsenius et al. 649 (st.fl.) (AAU). (Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011))B

Use Record

  • Ceroxylon parvum Galeano: Forraje de las hojas usado como alimento para ganado vacuno; las hojas también son usadas para techado de viviendas. Los troncos son usados para construcción de casas locales. (Moraes, M., Contribución al estudio del ciclo biológico de la palma Copernicia alba en un área ganadera (Espíritu, Beni, Bolivia). 1991)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/ABolivia
    Animal FoodFodderEntire leafNot identifiedN/ABolivia
    ConstructionHousesStemNot identifiedN/ABolivia
  • Ceroxylon parvum Galeano: Los tallos se utilizan en la construcción de casas. Las hojas se usan para techar (...). (Galeano, G., Las palmas de la región de Araracuara. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    ConstructionHousesStemNot identifiedN/AEcuador
  • Ceroxylon parvum Galeano: Sensiblemente, sus hojas son usadas en rituales en el Domingo de Ramos, de Semana Santa y las plantas son derribadas para colectar las hojas tiernas. (Moreno Suárez, L., and O.I. Moreno Suárez, Colecciones de las palmeras de Bolivia. 2006)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    CulturalRitualEntire leafNot identifiedN/ABolivia

Bibliography

A. Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador
B. Maria Jose Sanin & Gloria Geleano in Phytotaxa 34 (2011)