Bactris coloradonis L.H.Bailey, Gentes Herb. 3: 104 (1933)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Nicaraguapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Costa Rica (Heredia, Limón), Panama (Cocle, Colón, Darién, Panamá, San Blas, Veraguas), western Colombia (Antioquia,Chocó, Nariño, Valle del Cauca), and western Ecuador (Guayas); lowland or premontane rainforest, at 10-1000 m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Costa Rica to Ecuador, W of the Andes.
Distribution in Ecuador. In Ecuador it is rare in dry and moist forest types. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

  • Bactris coloradonis is diagnosed by its 14-29 cm long rachillae, and broadly obovoid, orange-red fruits 1.5(-2.5) x 1.4-1.7(- 2) cm. Synonymy was established by de Nevers et al. (1996). There are several local forms. Panamanian specimens usually have prominent cross-veins and marginal spinules on the pinnae; those from Costa Rica usually have neither (and have been called B. porschiana). This variation, however, is not consistent, and flowers and fruits from both countries are identical. One specimen from Costa Rica (Costa Rica. Heredia: Finca El Bejuco, Chilamate, 6 km W of Puerto Viejo, 14 Dec 1984, Henderson 63 (NY)) is unusual and is not included in the above description or list of specimens examined. It is large and superficially resembles B. coloradonis, but has the fruiting calyx and corolla like those of B. major. Gómez et al. 20453, from extreme southeastern Costa Rica, agrees well with B.coloradanis, but has unusually large fruits (2.5 x 2 cm diameter). Specimens from Colombia and Ecuador, and one from Panama (Mabberley & Sugden 1852), have a densely white-tomentose petiole and rachis, wider pinnae (like those of the related B.caudala), and densely hairy rachillae. One sterile specimen, with a simple leaf, may also belong here (Colombia. Chocó: 3 km S of Quibdo, 9 Jan 1979, Gentry & Rentería 23865 (MO)). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Common Name

  • Colombia: chacara, corocillo, corozo, meme. Nicaragua: coyolito. Panama: arar (Kuna), sin nuar (Kuna). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Description

  • Understorey palm. Stems clustered, to 2 m long and 2.5 cm in diameter. Leaves with petiole to 1 m long; blade ca. 150 cm long; pinnae 15-20 on each side, inserted in groups and spreading in different planes, the central ones lanceolate to inversely ovate, widest above the middle, ca. 50 cm long, and 6-7 cm wide. Inflorescence with 20-50 branches. Female flowers scattered along the branches. Fruits red, elliptic, smooth, ca. 2 x 1.5 cm; fruiting perianth with a very small calyx, and a much longer corolla; staminodial ring absent. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stems solitary or cespitose, 1.5-10 m tall, 3- 8 cm diam., spiny on internodes.
    Leaves 2-6; leaf spines solitary or somewhat clustered, black, terete, to 9 cm long, on lateral surfaces of petiole, fewer on abaxial surface of rachis; sheath 43-60(- 100) cm long, sheath, petiole, and rachis usually white-woolly-tomentose; ocrea to 10 cm long; rachis 0.9-2.1 m long; pinnae 17-38(-80) per side (or rarely the leaves simple), irregularly arranged in clusters, spreading in the same or in different planes, linear-lanceolate, aristate, glabrous,usually spiny on the margins, usually with obvious cross-veins; 21-86 x 3- 7 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 9.5-23 cm long, recurved, scarcely spiny; prophyll 9- 23 cm long; peduncular bract 27-37 cm long, sparsely to densely covered with spreading, terete, black or brown spines to 1 cm long; rachis 3.5- 9 cm long; rachillae 20-51, 14-29 cm long, at anthesis covered with long, brown trichomes; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers 3-4 mm long; sepal lobes 1-2.5 mm long; petals 3-4 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers 2-3 mm long; calyx tubular, to 1 mm long; corolla tubular, 2-3 mm long; staminodes 6, minute; fruils 1.5(- 2.5) x 1.4- 1.7(-2) cm, broadly obovoid, briefly and bluntly rostrate, orange-red; mesocarp starchy; endocarp turbinate, pitted apically, the sterile endocarp poress lightly displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers few; fruiting perianth with obscure calyx and truncate or slightly undulate-margined corolla, without staminodialring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Materials Examined

  • COSTA RICA. HEREDlA: Finca La Selva, Río Sarapiquí, 29 Mar 1980, Hammel 8345(MO), 4 Aug 1986, Hammer 84 (AAU, FTG), 25 Jul 1959, Holdridge 5121 (BH), 9 Apr 1973, Moore & Hartshorn 10123 (BH), 22 Apr 1976, Moore & Dransfield 10233 (BH).
    LIMÓN: 14 km SW of Barra del Colorado, 10°40'N, 83°40'W, 13-14 Sep 1986, Davidse & Herrera 31101 (MO); 7 km S of Bribrí, 100-250 m, 4 May 1983,Gómez et al. 20453 (MO); Dist. de Los Angeles de Jiménez, Finca Copasa, 18 Apr 1991, Mattos 2891 (NY); Tortuguero,10°27'N, 83°34'W, 70 m, 3 Feb 1988, Robles 1604 (MO); 31 Oct 1987, Robles 1198 (MO); Cerro Coronel, 10-40 m,13-14 Sep 1986, Stevens 24350 (MO).
    PANAMA. COCLÉ: Atlantic slope 9.4 km above El Cope, 750-900 m, 20 Jan 1978, Croat 44663 (MO); continental divide above El Cope, 8°38'N, 80°39'W, 650-750 m, 27 Nov 1985, de Nevers et al. 6374 (MO), 1 Dec 1995, Henderson & Bernal 2049 (NY), 22 Jan 1980, Moore et al. 10536 (BH); Coclecito rd., trail along continental divide, 8°42'N, 80°28W, 500 m, 11 Jan 1986, de Nevers et al. 6731(MO); 7 km N of EI Cope, Atlantic slope, 700-850 m, 3 Oct 1977, Folsom et al. 5746 (MO); sawmill above EI Copé cloud forest, 1000 m, 20 Apr 1978, Hammel 2628 (MO), 10 Jan 1981 , Read et al. 81-25 (US); El Valle, Cerro Gaital 8°37'N, 80°7'W, 800-900m, 11 Jul 1987, McPherson 11198 (CAS, MO); ca. 3 km NE of El Valle, 2 Nov 1974, Mori & Kallunki 2969 (MO).
    COLÒN: Mojinga swamp, 26 Aug 1940, Barllett 16873 (BH, MICH); Barra Colorado Island 23 Jul 1931, Bailey 653 (BH), 19 Jun 1970, Croat 10946,(MO, NY), Croat 10947 (MO), 16 Jul 1970, Croat 11322 (MO), 30 May 1988, Garwood 23870 (F); N of Diamante, NW of abandoned mine on Quebrada de la Mina, 9°24'N, 79°35'W, 11 Jan 1984, Churchill & de Nevers 4223 (MO); Santa Rita Ridge, ca. 1 mi from Boyd-Roosevelt Hwy., 9Jul; 1971, Croat 15322 (MO); rd. S-10 N of Escobal, 30 Sep 1970, Croat & Porter 12478 (MO); near Coco Solo weather station, 6 Oct 1961 , Duke 4269 (MO); Río Chinilia, 8 Jun 1923, Maxon 6904 (US), Maxon 6908 (US); end of Río Boquerón rd., 500-700 m, 12 Apr 1978, Hammel 2464(MO); Santa Rita Ridge, 9°25'N, 79°40'W, 500 m, 17 Sep 1987, McPherson 11752 (MO), 29 Mar 1969, Porter et al. 4730 (BH, F, MO); Fort Sherman, 12 Dec 1974, Mori & Kallunki 3664 (BM, F, MO); Lama La Toba, 3 km SW of mouth of Río Chagres, 21 Dec 1973, Nee 8933 (MO, US); Gatuncillo, 29 Dec 1957, C. Smith et al. 3335 (US). DARIEN: Cerro Pirre, 700-950 m, 7 Apr 1975, Mori & Kallunki 5505 (MO).
    PANAMÁ: Cerro Jefe, 4 Feb 1973, P. Busey & Croat 257 (MO), 17 Nov 1975, Davidse & D'Arcy 10120 (MO), 1 Jan 1972, Gentry et al. 3451 (F, MO), 10 Dec 1966, Lewis, et al. 263 (BH, MO), 11 Jan 1981, Read et al. 81-42b (US) Parque Nacional Soberania, 2 Sep 1987, Garwood & Bock 21410 (F); Balboa, 13 Jul 1923, Cook & Martin 6 (F); Llano-Cartí rd., ca. 14 km from Chepo turnoff, ca. 350-400, m, 9 Jan 1973, Correa et al. 1839 (MO); 2.5 mi N of Goofy Lake on rd. to Cerro Azul, 26 Jul 1970, Croat 11550 (MO NY); Cerro Campana, 1000 m, 11 Mar 1973, Croat 22838 (MO); El Lan-Cartí rd., 7.8 km N of Panamerican Hwy., 31 Oct 1977, Folsom et al. 6160 (MO); Parque Nacional Soberania, 2 Sep 1987, Garwood & Bock 2141a (F); Pipeline rd., 11 Mar 1983, Gentry & Hamilton 4J119(MO, NY) El Llano-Cartí rd., km 22.3, 350 m, 20 Mar 1975, Mori & Kallunki 5103 (MO); Cerro Campana, 25 Mar 1969, Porter et al. 4209 (MO, NY).
    SAN BLAS: El Llano-Cartí rd., km 26.5, along Río Cartí Chico, 9°19'N, 78°55'W, 200 m, 13 Apr 1985, de Neversel al. 5351 (CAS, MO, NY), 11 Dec 1987 Henderson & Herrera 716 (BH, CAS, COL, FTG, NY); El. Llano-Cartí rd., km 19.1, 9°19'N, 78°55'W, 350 m, 4 Nov 1985, de Nevers et al. 6216 (MO), 11 Mar 1986, de Nevers 7314 (MO); Yar Bired (Cerro San José), 9°20'N, 79°8'W, 400-500 m, 5 Feb 1986, de Nevers & Herrera 6946 (MO); Cangandí. 9°24'N, 79°24'W, 30 m, 10 Feb 1986, de Nevers & Herrera 7077 (MO), 27 Mar 1986, de Nevers et al. 7549(MO), Herrera & Pérez 126 (CAS, PMA); Aila Tiwar (Río Acla), 8°48'30"N, 77°40'30"W, 25-100 m, Jan 1979, Mabberley & Sugden 1852 (MO).
    VERAGUAS: Area of Santa Fe, rd. past Escuela Agrícola Alto Piedra, 8°31'N, 81°8'W, 700 m, 26 Aug 1984, Churchill et al. 5965 (MO); 0.2 mi beyond Escuela Agricola Alto Piedra on rd. to Río Calovébora, 750 m, 3 Apr 1976, Croat & Folsom 33910 (MO); mouth of Rio Concepción, 4 Dec 1967, Lewis et al.2815 (MO); Caribbean slope above Rio Primero Brazo, 5 mi NW of Santa Fe, 700-1200 m, 18- 19 Mar 1973, Liesner 999 (MO).
    COLOMBIA, ANTIOQUIA: Mun, Mutatá, rd, from El Darién to Mutata, 4 May 1987, Fonnegra et al. 2165 (MO).
    CHOCÓ: Mun. Tadó, 2 km E of town, 100 m, 18 Mar 1986, Bernal et al. 1017 (COL, FTG, NY); Quibdó-Yuto rd., 10 km S of Quibdó, 150 m,8 Jul 1986, Bernal et al. 1086 (COL, FTG, NY); 10 km W of Las Animas, 100 m, 10 Jul 1986, Bernal et al. 1097 (AAU, COL, FTG, NY); Rio San Juan, 4°12'N, 77°10'W, 27 Mar 1979, Forero et al. 4214 (COL,MO); Noanamá, 4°42'N, 76°55'W, 4 Apr 1979, Forero et al. 4573 (COL, MO); 6 km E of Río Pato, ca. 48 km from Las Animas, 250 m, 11 Jan 1979, Gentry & Renteria 24027 (BH,COL, MO); La Mojarra, 5°12'N, 76°37?W, 5 Nov 1983, Juncosa 1250 (MO); Mecana, Bahía Solano, 6°l6'N,77°21'W, 1 Jan 1984, Juncosa 1600 (MO); Andagoya, 70-100 m, 20-30 Apr 1939, Killip 35068 (US); Quibdó-Yuto rd., km 7,5°3'N, 76°47?W, 18 Jun 1985, King et al. 673 (NY) 25 Jul 1984, King et al. 549 (NY); Quibdó, La Cascorba, 50 m, 17 Apr 1982, Rentería 2433 (MO).
    NARIÑO: Mun Tumaco, 6 km S of Imbilí, 1 Oct 1985, Bernal & Galeano 862 (NY).
    VALLE DEL CAUCA: Buenaventura, 30 Apr 1926, Cook 60 (US), 7 May 1926, Cook 88 (US), 25 May 1926, Cook 136 (US), 26 May 1926, Cook 148 (US), 3 Jun 1944, Killip & Cuatrecasas 38725 (US); Bajo Calima Region, along rd between Buenaventura and Malaga, km 31.5, 4°1'N, 7°05'W, 6 Feb 1990, Croat & Watt 70258 (MO); Bajo Calima, ca. 15 km N of Buenaventura, 3°56'N, 77°8'W, 3 Dec 1981, Gentry 35258 (COL, MO), 14 Feb 1983, Gentry et al. 40217 (MO, NY), 14 Dec 1985, Gentry et al. (MO), 11 Feb 1984, Juncosa 2106 (MO), 25 Nov 1986, Monsalve 1315 (MO); Bajo Calima, Dindo, 3°59'N, 76°58'W, 19 Jul 1984, Gentry & Monsalve 48370 (MO, NY); Bajo Calima, 26 May 1982, Murphy et al. 504 (US), Murphy et al. 505 (US); 10 km W of Buenaventura, 3°58'N, 77°8'W, 100-140 m, S May 1987, Sanders 1782 (FTG); 15 km NE of Buenaventura, 3°59'N, 77°2'W, 140m, 5 May 1987,Sanders J787 (FTG).
    ECUADOR, GUAYAS: 5 km W of Bucay, 20°11'S, 79°7'W, 6 Jul 1979, Løjtnant & Molau 15610 (AAU). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Use Record

  • Bactris coloradonis L.H.Bailey: Alimentación. Artesanía (ahorros). Frutos-semilla, estípite. (García Cossio, F., Y.A. Ramos, J.C. Palacios, and A. Ríos, La familia Arecaceae, recurso promisorio para la economía en el Departamento del Chocó. 2002)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/AColombia
    Utensils and ToolsOtherSeedsNot identifiedN/AColombia
  • Bactris coloradonis L.H.Bailey: Los frutos en la alimentación y con la estípite se elaboran trampas para capturar pescados (Ahorro y Trincheras) (Pino, N., and H. Valois, Ethnobotany of Four Black Communities of the Municipality of Quibdo, Choco - Colombia.. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsAfro-AmericanoN/AColombia
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemAfro-AmericanoN/AColombia

Bibliography

A. Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador
B. Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000
C. World Checklist of Arecaceae