Bactris setiflora Burret, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin-Dahlem 14: 328 (1939)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuador (Pastaza) montane forest at 770-1100 m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Endemic to a small area E of the Andes in Ecuador, on terra firme. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

  • Plants appearing to be hybrids between this species and Bactris corossilla are sometimes found (Pastaza: Bergmann #97854; #97856). (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Bactris setiflora is diagnosed by its flattened, yellowish brown leaf spines, regularly arranged pinnae, spinulose abaxial leaf surface, and spinulose calyx and corolla of pistillate flowers. Borchsenius et al. (1998) report possible hybrids between this species and B. corossilla . The following seems to be an example: Ecuador. Pastaza: Puyo-Macas rd km 15, 10°28'S, 77°55'W, 940 m, 1 Apr 1992, Borgtoft Pedersen 97669 (AAU). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Conservation

  • Endangered (Borchsenius & Skov 1999). Criteria B1, B2a (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Common Name

  • Ecuador: chibu, chonta brava, kamanchai (Shuar), shibu. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Description

  • Understorey palm. Stems clustered, to 5 m long, 2.5-5 cm in diameter. Leaves 1.5-2.5 m long; pinnae 25-35 on each side, regularly inserted in one plane; central pinnae 45-70 cm long, 3-4.5 cm wide; leaf axis covered with brown or black bristles and spines. Inflorescence 25-50 cm long, densely covered with dark brown bristles on most parts; branches 10-25, to 15 cm long. Female flowers scattered along the branches. Fruit black, flattened at top, rostrate, 2-2.5 cm in diameter; fruiting perianth with a short calyx and a slightly longer, densely bristly corolla; staminodial ring absent. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stems cespitose, forming large clumps of 5-30 stems, 2.9-5 m tall, 2-5 cm diam., densely spiny on internodes.
    Leaves 3-6; leaf spines scattered, flattened, yellowish brown, tomentose and spinulose, to 8 cm long, on sheath and lateral surfaces of petiole, few or absent on rachis; sheath 40-71 cm long, sheath, petiole, and rachis densely brown-tomentose; ocrea prominent, spiny, tomentose, 14-25 cm long; petiole 20-33 cm long; rachis 1.1-1.8 m long; pinnae 25-34 per side, regularly arranged, spreading in the same plane, linear-lanceolate to sigmoid, spinulose abaxially and on veins adaxially; middle pinnae 48-66 x 3-4 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 18-20 cm long, recurved, spinulose; prophyll 20-32 cm long; peduncular bract 35-49 cm long, densely covered with yellowish brown or dark brown spines to 2 cm long; rachis 3-5 cm long; rachillae 11-23, 8-15 cm long, at anthesis densely covered with spinules; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers not seen; pistillate flowers (post-anthesis) to 6 mm long; calyx cupular, to 3 mm long, spinulose; corolla urceolate, to 4 mm long, densely spinulose; staminodes not seen; fruits 2- 3 x 2-3 cm, obovoid, lilac; mesocarp juicy; endocarp obovoid, the sterile pores displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers numerous, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with lobed, 4 mm long, spinulose calyx and lobed, 8 mm long, spinulose corolla, without staminodial ring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Materials Examined

  • ECUADOR. PASTAZA: Headwater of Río Bobonaza, 10-20 km SE of Puye, 10°32'S, 77°48'W, 730 m, 21 Mar 1987, Balslev et al. 62420 (AAU, COL); Puyo-Macas rd., km 24, 10°37'S, 77°55'W, 1100 m, 18 Mar 1991, Bergmann & Borgtoft Pedersen 97800 (AAU); end of Cane los rd., ca. 15 km E of Puyo-Macas rd., 10°35'S, 77°48'W, 770 m, 18 Mar 1991, Bergmann & Borgroft Pedersen 97802 (AAU); Palora rd., 3 km from Puyo-Macas rd., 1°41'S, 77°52'W, 800 m, 7 Oct 1991, Bergmann & Borgtoft Pedersen 97855 (AAU); Puyo, Macas rd. Near bridge across Río Pastaza, 10 55'S, 77°49'W, 1 Apr 1992, Borgtoft Pedersen 97670 (AAU). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Use Record

  • Bactris setiflora Burret: Da un fruto en racimos pequeños, de color oscuro. La pepa parece labrada. Para cosecharlo se tumba el árbol, se lava bien y se procede como con el acho. (Bianchi, C., Artesanías y técnicas Shuar. 1982)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Bactris setiflora Burret: Fruits and palm heart are edible. (Báez, S., Dictionary of plants used by the Canelos-Quichua. 1998)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
    Human FoodBeveragesPalm heartIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Bactris setiflora Burret: The soft or liquid endosperm is eaten as a snack. Fruits are eaten, and the stem is used as a punt pole in canoes. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionTransportationStemIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
    Human FoodFoodSeedsNot identifiedN/AEcuador

Bibliography

A. Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador
B. Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000
C. World Checklist of Arecaceae