Orania lauterbachiana Becc., Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 52: 36 (1914)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_141957_3.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
New Guinea present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Orania lauterbachiana is the most widespread species in New Guinea. It is found throughout the mainland and on a nearby island. In Papua this species is known from Sorong, Etna Bay-Fakfak and surrounding the Taritatu (formerly Idenburg) river. In Papua New Guinea it is known throughout the country from Western Province to the most eastern part (Milne Bay Province) including Normanby Island. So far, it has never been collected from other nearby islands. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Habitat

  • In ridge forest from lowlands up to highland tropical forest from 10 - 820 m altitude. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Discussion

  • The holotype of Orania lauterbachiana (Lauterbach 970) was once identified as O. macropetala and cited in the protologue of that species by Lauterbach & Schumann (1901) with further notes on its slight differences with the syntypes of O. macropetala, Lauterbach 2001 and 2835. In the protologue of O. lauterbachiana Beccari (1915) had already described in detail the differences between O. lauterbachiana and O. macropetala regarding the floral dimensions, but there was no mention of the number of stamens and staminodes. Neither did Lauterbach & Schumann mention this in the protologue of O. macropetala. It was Essig (1980) who first described the number of stamens as one character that distinguishes O. lauterbachiana from O. macropetala. Amazingly, although Beccari did not mention the number of stamens, his observation was correct, that Lauterbach 970 represented a different taxon. Unfortunately the holotype of O. lauterbachiana was probably destroyed during World War II. Only one isotype survived, the one kept in FI - just three photographs of rachillae and a bunch of dried staminate and pistillate flowers. Essig (1980) cited the presence of photographs of fragments of the type - presumed to be of B- at BH, but these have not been found. Essig also mentioned that O. lauterbachiana has a fruit diam. varying from 3.2 - 5.5 cm; however, the protologue of O. lauterbachiana does not say anything about the fruit diam. (see Beccari 1915). Apparently the information regarding the fruit diam. was measured from other specimens, but not the type. Burret (1936) described O. brassii as a distinct species; however, Burret (1936) never compared his O. brassii with O. lauterbachiana in his protologue although there was a great possibility that he had seen the type of O. lauterbachiana - or even read the protologue itself - sent by Beccari to Berlin several years before. Instead Burret only compared O. brassii with the glabrous O. disticha and stated the presence of redbrown tomentum in the peduncle and rachillae as the distinctive characters. The species is now subsumed, not based on the comparison with O. disticha, but with a more appropriate one, O. lauterbachiana. Essig also mentioned without giving an exact reference that Burret himself had annotated the specimen at NY, so based on this the specimen was then selected as the lectotype. This statement is doubtful for Burret never wrote about this in the protologue. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Conservation

  • Least concern (LC). Widespread throughout the island of New Guinea and often occurring in large stands. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Common Name

  • Bananak (Amele-Madang), kolu (Mokian), kunakwan (Jal.), omoo (Yamur). (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Etymology

  • After C. A. G. Lauterbach, German naturalist and plant collector. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Uses

  • The trunk is used as floorboards for houses (Burret 1935). (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Description

  • Large palm. Trunk up to 10 - 20 m tall, c. 18 cm diam. near the crown, c. 32 cm diam. near the base. Leaves 10 in the crown, spirally arranged, c. 3.5 - 5.1 m long; Leaf-sheath c. 30 cm long, margins disintegrating into fibres, c. 13 - 15 cm long, adaxial surface glabrous, abaxial surface with red-brown tomentum; petiole c. 1.2 - 2.20 m long, covered with red-brown tomentum in the proximal part, c. 2.3 - 2.4 cm diam.; rachis densely covered with red-brown tomentum, c. 2 cm diam. in the middle part; leaflets elongatelanceolate, regularly arranged leaflets held in one plane, 18 - 21 on each side of rachis, sometimes the proximal 2 leaflets crowded in a group (L. J. Brass 5489), otherwise c. 5.5 - 15 cm distant, c. 70 - 132 cm long, 5.5 - 11.5 cm wide, adaxial surface glabrous or with thin red-brown tomentum, mainly near the base, with white appearance, midrib slender, other ribs more slender, abaxial surface with dense white indumentum, red-brown tomentum on margin, midrib thick, other ribs more slender. Inflorescence spreading, branching into 2 orders, c. 95 - 192 cm long, robust; prophyll persistent, hard, splitting in the middle, c. 45 - 161 cm long, 7 cm wide, disintegrating into fibres when old; peduncle c. 53 - 65 cm long, with thin or dense red-brown tomentum; peduncular bract division unknown; rachis c. 57 - 127 cm long; first order branches c. 50 - 90 cm long; rachillae thick, rarely slender, distally zigzagging, with thin red-brown tomentum, c. 35 - 60 cm long, bearing 96 - 104 flower clusters, bearing triads arranged in the proximal 1=2 - rarely in the proximal 2=5 & paired staminate flowers in the distal 3=5 part, the basal c. 2 - 3.5 cm devoid of flowers, triads c. 1.5 - 2 cm distant, rarely 0.5 - 1 cm distant, rachilla glabrous or with thin red-brown tomentum, some deeply textured. Staminate flowers pale creamy white; with calyx of 3 united sepals, c. 1 - 2 mm long; corolla with 3 free petals, c. 7 - 11 mm long, 2 - 2.5 mm wide; stamens 6, filaments free, darkbrown, c. 1 - 1.75 mm long, anthers elongatelanceolate, pale creamy yellow, free, c. 5 - 7 mm long, pollen yellow, numerous, pistillodes absent. Pistillate flowers with calyx of 3 minute united sepals, c. 3 - 4 mm long, 3 - 3.5 mm wide; corolla with 3 petals, c. 6 - 8 mm long, 3 - 6 mm wide; staminodes 6, uniform, c. 1 mm long; gynoecium c. 4 mm long, 1 - 1.5 mm wide; stigma with 3 elongate lobes, c. 1 - 2 mm long, brighter coloured. Fruits globose, bilobed or trilobed, reddish orange when mature (Lauterbach 970), c. 3.3 - 5 cm diam., pale brownish green when young, orange or brownish orange when mature. Embryo placed below middle line of seed. Eophyll bifid. (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Materials Examined

  • INDONESIA. Papua Barat. Sorong: Ayawasi, Kecamatan Aifat, along the small stream, NW of Ayawasi, 1°09'S, 132°29'E, 12 Sept. 1995, E. F. De Vogel 9698 (BO!, K!, L!). Papua Barat. Fakfak: Teluk Etna (Etna Bay), km 45 road PT Kaltim Hutama, 2 Feb. 2001, C. Heatubun CH 336 (K!, MAN); Teluk Etna (Etna Bay), km 45 PT Kaltim Hutama logging road, Yamur, 2 Feb. 2001, R. A. Maturbongs RAM 671 (AAU, BO!, K!, LAE, MAN). Papua. Jayawijaya: Idenburg R., L. J. Brass 12966 (BO!); 4 km SW of Bernhard Camp, Idenburg R., March 1939, L. J. Brass 13375 (BO!, L!). PAPUA NEW GUINEA. North East, Gogol Mittellauf, 17 Nov. 1890, Lauterbach 970 (B holotype, FI!). Western: Fly R., 528 Mile Camp, alt. 80 m, May 1936, L. J. Brass 6610 (L!); 2 miles N of Kiunga, Upper Fly R., 11 Sept. 1967, Pullen 7303 (K!). Southern Highlands: Erave Distr., road to SE Gobe oil rig, 80 km NW of Kikori, 6°50'9.6"S 143°48'52.1"E, 26 Nov. 2000, W. J. Baker 1114 (AAU, BO!, K!, L, LAE, NY). Gulf: Kikori Distr., Victory junction (confluence of Siribi & Kuru Rs), 34 km N of Kikori, 7°7'25.9"S 144°19'30.2"E, 20 Nov. 2000, W. J. Baker 1099 (AAU, BO!, K!, LAE, NY); TFI logging concession near Morere village, 28 Km NE of Kikori, 7°15'15.1"S 144°26'20.3"E, W. J. Baker 1107 (AAU, BRI, BO!, K!, LAE, NY, L). Madang: Lower Ramu, Atitau area, 9 Oct. 1958, R. Pullen 1192 (L!). Morobe: Boridi, Mokian, 12 Nov. 1935, Carr 14884 (K!); Lae, 100 ft. alt, 3 Dec. 1958, Henty NGF 10576 (K!); Bulili ridge, near Lababia guesthouse, 7°5?S 147°5?E, 6 April 2000, A. Kjær 515 (AAU, BRI, CAN, K!). Central: Mafulu, 1933 New Guinea Expedition of the American Museum of Natural History, 12 Nov. 1933, L. J. Brass 5489 (B, BO!, NY! lectotype). Milney Bay: Normanby Island, Mt Pabinama, 10 May 1956, L. J. Brass 25820 (K!); Normanby Island, Waikaiuna, 17 May 1956, L. J. Brass 25910 (K!); Normanby Island, Mt Solomonai, W of Esa?ala, 700 m alt., 26 Nov. 1976, J. R. Croft LAE 68947 (L!). (A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012)A

Bibliography

    A. A.P. Keim & J. Dransfield, A monograph of the genus Orania (Arecaceae: Oranieae) in Kew Bulletin 67. 2012
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae