Aiphanes hirsuta subsp. hirsuta

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Known from premontane forest in Panama at 600-1400 m, the eastern slopes of northern Cordillera Central in Colombia at 1600-1900 m, and western slopes of Cordillera Occidental at 100-1500 m (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A

Discussion

  • This subspecies is the most variable of the four. In Panama and the northern parts of Cordillera Central there is a strong tendency toward thickening of the rachillae, densely inserted triads, and pistillate flowers with conspicuously acuminate sepals and petals. In extreme cases inflorescences may approach those of A. gelatinosa in structure. On the western slopes of Cordillera Occidental these tendencies are less pronounced, and plants from the southern Chocó (Forero 7224) form a transition to subsp. fosteriorum differing only in size. Pollen of A. hirsuta subsp. hirsuta appear to be rather uniform, with tectate, perforate to rugulate exine with supratectal warts or spines.
    The confusion regarding typification of A. monostachys, A. leiospatha, and A. macroloba has been elucidated by Bernal (1986). Aiphanes monostachys Burret was based on a mixed collection including the leaves of A. monostachys and the misplaced inflorescence of what Burret described as A. macroloba; thus the misleading name. The real inflorescence of A. monostachys was probably associated with the leaves of a Geonomoid palm (Kalbreyer 1607) and described by Burret as a separate species, A.leiospatha (see "Doubtfull names and Excluded taxa"). (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A

Description

  • See species (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)C
  • Stems 2-8(-20), each 4-10 m tall. Leaves 4-8; sheath 20-45 cm long; petiole 9-35 cm long, densely armed with spinules and spines; rachis 86-135 cm long, unarmed or spiny; pinnae 9-26 per side, in groups of 2-5, spaced by 15-21 cm, in different planes, narrowly to broadly cuneate, 1-6 times as long as wide, nearly glabrous to densely covered with yellow spinules, truncate to lobulate-praemorse at apex, rarely slightly incised-praemorse; middle pinnae 11-45 x 5-16 cm. Peduncle 43-120 cm long, 2-9 mm diam. at apex, minutely spinulose or sparsely to densely covered with brown spines, to 3(-5) cm long; rachis 17-46 cm long, unarmed or spiny; rachillae 9-28, densely covered with brown to black spinules, 0.5-1.5 mm long; basal rachillae 23-40 cm long, basally without flowers for 0.5-2.5 cm, often strongly thickened in the androgynous part, with closely inserted triads. Staminate flowers 1.5-3.4 mm long; anthers rectangular to shortly linear, 0.5-0.7 x 0.4-0.5 mm. Pistillate flowers 4.5-7 mm long, often acuminate; pistil ca. 3 mm high, glabrous or with some minute spinules at base. Fruit red to purple, globose, ca. 7-11 mm diam., glabrous to minutely spinulose; endocarp globose, 6-9.5 mm diam., 0.5-1 mm thick, with numerous fine pits apically. (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A

Materials Examined

  • Specimens examined. PANAMA. BOCA DEL TORO: Fortuna Dam area, continental divide, ridge trail to unnamed peak E of oleoducto rd., 1200 m, 1 Aug 1984 (imm fr). Churchill 5874 (MO). COCLÉ: N of EI Valle, between Cerro Caracoral and Cerro Gaital, 1000 m, 18 Jul 1982 (fem fl), Knapp et al. 6060 (CAS); foot of Cerro Pilon, above EI Valle de Anton, 700 m, 27 Mar 1969 (st), Porter et al. 4388 (MO); continental divide above EI Copé, 700 m, 27 Nov 1985 (infl), de Nevers et al. 6405 (NY); El Valle de Antón, Cerro Gaital, 26 Nov 1985 (infl), de Nevers et al. 6366 (NY)
    DARIEN: Serraía de Pirre, 900 m, 18 Jan 1985 (fem fl), Henderson & Contraires 099 (NY); Cerro Pirre, ridge top near Rancho Plastico, 1200 m, 10 JuI 1977 (imm fr), Folsom 4325 (MO); ibid ., just S of Pirre, 10 Jul 1977 (fr), Folsom 4513 (MO); Parque Nacional del Darien, Cerro Mali. ca. 22 kill E of Pucuro, 1350 m. 23 Oct 1987 (imm fr), de Nevers et al. 8416 (CAS); Alto de Nique, southernmost peak of Cerro Pirre massif, exactly on the Panama/Colombia border, 1400 m, 19 Apr 1980 (st), Gentry et al. 28658 (BH)
    PANAMA: Panama, (fem fl), Nee 11606 (MO); Comarca de San Blas, Cerro Brewster. 850 m, 21 Apr 1985 (st), de Nevers et al. 5395 (NY); Cerro Campana along trail 10 summit, 22 Jun 1972 (st), Croat 17194 (MO); Cerro Jefe, 5 km S of the summit, 4 Feb 1973 (imm fr), Busey & Croat 268 (MO); ibid., near summit, 10 Mar 1973 (infl), Croat 22684 (MO): ibid., 3 km beyond tower, 13 Dec 1987 (st), Henderson & Herrera 722 (NY).
    COLOMBIA. ANTIOQUIA: Mun. de Cocorná., hwy Medellín-Bogotá, km 63. quebrada El Bihao. 1900 m, 26 Apr 1980 (fl), Bernal et al. 171 (COL); Mun. de Frontino, Murrí, Río Venados. 750-850 m, 19 Jun 1982 (fl, fr), Bernal & Galeano 349 (COL, HUA); Mun de Mutatá, rd. to Pavarandogrande, 100-150 m, 8 Dec 1982 (fl), Bernal & Galeano 440 (COL); Mun. de Santa Rita, 7 km NE of Guatapé, 1900 m, 16 Aug 1980 (fl), Galeano & Bernal 238 (COL, HUA); 17 Sep 1987 (fl), Bernal & Tobón 1378 (AAU, BH, COL, HUA, NY); Mun. de Urrao, Río Polo, 1500 m, 16 Jun 1982 (fl), Bernal & Galeano 348 (COL, HUA). CHOCO: Mun. de EI Carmen de Atrato, rd. MedelIín-Quibdó km 150, vereda EI Dace, Río EI Aguilón, 640 m, 4 Jan 1980 (fl, imm fr), Bernal & Galeano 56 (COL, HUA), 57 (COL); Mun. de San José del Palmar, Río Toríto, 900 m, 12 Mar 1980 (fl), Forero et al. 7224 (COL).
    (Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95)A

Bibliography

A. Borchsenius, F. and Bernal, R. 1996. Aiphanes (Palmae). Flora Neotropica 70. pp 1-95
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae
C. Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador