Dypsis procumbens (Jum. & H.Perrier) J.Dransf., Beentje & Govaerts, Palms (1999+) 50: 184 (2006)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Madagascarpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Quite widespread on the middle altitudes of the eastern escarpment between Zahamena and Andohahela. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A


  • The protologue of D. linearis incorporates characters of both syntypes (Forsyth Major 604 and 606) but as the floral characters derive clearly from Forsyth Major 606, we choose that as the holotype. Forsyth Major 604 is D. heterophylla. We have decided that the differences between C. ambolo, N. procumbens and D. linearis are spurious, and we hereby put C. ambolo and N. procumbens in the synonymy of D. linearis, which is the oldest name.
    The type of C. ambolo has up to six petals, the innermost much smaller than the outer; there may be up to eight stamens. The peduncular bract of C. ambolo was considered to be that of a Chrysalidocarpus, and therefore Jumelle felt in 1928 this was a Chrysalidocarpus, but the specific epithet was already in use in that genus. C. ambolocaused Jumelle problems. He had drawn up a list of differences between the genera Neophloga and Chrysalidocarpus based on the peduncular bract (deciduous, beaked and splitting all over from the apex downwards in Chrysalidocarpus, remaining and splitting only at or near the apex in Neophloga), the leaf sheath (membranous in Neophloga, coriaceous in Chrysalidocarpus) and the habit, plus a few more characters of the "sometimes, but not always" kind. This taxon, first described by him in Neophloga, then had to be put in Chrysalidocarpus because of the peduncular bract, which was beaked; a problem was that the leaf sheath was of the Neophloga kind (membranous). In 1945 it had, without explanation, been returned to Neophloga with the note that it had all the characters of that genus, but the peduncular bract of a Chrysalidocarpus. N. procumbens was mentioned by Jumelle (1929), but not treated; Jumelle wondered whether this was a Neophloga or a Chrysalidocarpus, because of the lack of a peduncular bract on the older inflorescence he saw. N. linearis var. distachya is D. heterophylla. Moramanga: Ambatovola, 1912 (fl.), Perrier 11994 (P) is probably this species, but has regular leaflets. It is described by Perrier as clustering and 1-2.5 m high, but has the typical yellow-orange inflorescence axes. One inflorescence has a bifurcate proximal rachilla. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Bamboo-rich montane forest on steep slopes, secondary bush on white gritty sand; hillcrest or mid-slope; 250-1450 m. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A


  • Not threatened. Widespread, with several populations in protected areas. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A


  • Not recorded. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A


  • Clustering in tufts of up to 4-40 stems or apparently solitary palm. STEM(S) 1-7 m high, sometimes leaning on other vegetation, 0.9-4 cm diam., internodes 2-15 cm, pale green, with dense redbrown to purple scales, turning glabrous and grey with age, nodal scars c. 5 mm; sometimes aerial roots present at some 25 cm from the ground, 6 mm across; crownshaft 13 -16 cm long, 1.3-2 cm diam., yellow to pale green. LEAVES 4-8 in the crown, pinnate, porrect, and sometimes marcescent leaves present; sheath 13-35 cm long, pale green with dense red-brown scales, auricles absent or up to 1 cm, fringed with red scales; petiole absent or up to 16 cm long, 2-6 mm diam., pubescent-scaly, adaxially flat; rachis 22-70 cm long, in mid-leaf 1.5-3 mm wide, pubescentscaly; leaflets 11-23 on each side of the rachis, in groups of 2-5, fanned within the groups, occasionally with slightly swollen nodes at the base, group interval 3-13 cm, proximal 3.5-22 x 0.1-1.3 cm, median 7-26 x 0.3-3 cm, distal 7-18 x 0.2-2.7 cm, main veins 1-3, apices attenuate, proximally scaly, with few minute scattered scales, to glabrous, with prominent scales on the distal margins, distal pair joined for 0.2-2.5 cm, with 1 main vein, with dentate apices 2-6 mm wide. INFLORESCENCE interfoliar to infrafoliar, branched to 1 (-2) orders, with orange axes, arching; peduncle 13-53 cm long, distally 2-7 mm diam., pubescent; prophyll 7-40 cm long, 7-10 mm wide, borne at 1-11 cm above the base of the peduncle, open for the distal 1-7 cm, patchily pubescent; peduncular bract inserted at 5-45 cm from the base of the peduncle, circumscissile and rapidly deciduous, 9-24 cm long, with scattered scales, with a beak to 3 cm long; non-tubular peduncular bract 0.2-3.8 cm long; rachis 1.5-17 cm long, densely pubescent, orange, with 0 (-3) branched and 4-12 unbranched first order branches; rachillae 5-24 cm long, 1.5-5 mm diam., with dense to scattered scales (rarely glabrous) and distant triads. STAMINATE FLOWERS with sepals 1.2-2 x 0.7-2.3 mm; petals orange, connate for 0.5-0.8 mm, free lobes 1.5-2.8 x 1- 2.2 mm; stamens 6, uniseriate or rarely slightly biseriate (offset 0.1-0.3 mm), filaments 0.4- 1.2 mm, anthers 0.8-1.8 x 0.4-1 mm, versatile; pistillode 0.6-1.3 x 0.2-0.7 mm, conical with obtuse apex. PISTILLATE FLOWERS with sepals 1- 2 x 1.3-3.3 mm; petals 2.5-3.6 x 2.3-3.5 mm; staminodes 0.2-0.6 mm; gynoecium 2.8-4 x 2-3.2 mm. FRUIT yellow to red, 6-9 x 4-6 mm. SEED 5-6.5 x 3-3.3 mm, with homogeneous endosperm. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Materials Examined

  • Ambatondrazaka: Bemainty to Androndramanitra, March 1951 (fr.), Cours 4234 (P); Anonokambo (Nonokambo), Jan. 1967 (bud), Bogner 186 (K). Moramanga: Mantady, Dec. 1991 (bud), Beentje & Andriampaniry 4538 (K, MO, TAN); idem, Dec. 1992 (fl.), Beentje & Andriampaniry 4777 (K, TAN); Ambalafary, Anivomaro, Feb. 1968 (bud), Service Forestier SF 26668 (P). Ambatondrazaka: Manakambahiny, Oct. 1958 (bud), Rakotovao RN 9600 (K, P). Ambositra: Ambohimitombo forest, Jan. 1895 (fl.), Forsyth Major 606 (K, lectotype). Ampasimanolotra/Nosy Varika: Sahalampona-Ampita, Jan. 1945 (bud), Cours 2437 (K, P, TAN). Mahanoro: Bas-Mangoro, Oct. 1927 (bud), Perrier 18043 (P). Ifanadiana: Ambohirafia, March 1985 (fr.), Dorr 3891, 3892 (K); Ranomafana, March 1991 (fl., fr.), Beentje 4424 (K, TAN) and 4426 (K); idem, July 1992 (bud), H. Beentje & J. Beentje 4735 (K); idem, trail to Maharira, March 1992 (y.fr.), Malcomber & Rakoto 1333 (K, P); Ambinanindrano, July 1992 (fl., fr.), Beentje & Andriampaniry 4731 (BH, K, MO, P, TAN); idem, Jan. 1993 (fl.), Beentje & Andriampaniry 4797 (K, MO, TAN); 3 hours walk E of Tsaratanana, March 1991 (fl., y.fr.), Beentje 4436 (K, TAN). Mananjary: Mt Vatovavy, Oct. 1911 (fl.), Perrier 12071 (P, type of C. ambolo/N. mananjarensis). Ambalavao: Ambatomboay, Oct. 1954 (bud), Rakotovao 574 (P); E slopes of Andringitra Mts, near Ihovika R., Sept. 1911 (bud), Perrier 11977 (P, type of N. procumbens). Ambalavao:Betroka/Iakora: Mt. Kalambatitra, Nov. 1933 (fl.), Humbert 11859 (P). Iakora: between Kalambatitra Col and the Manambolo R., Nov. 1933 (fl.), Humbert 12109 (P). Tolanaro: Akaramy R. upstream from Mahamavo, Jan./Feb. 1934 (fl.), Humbert 13904 (P); Andohahela, col Tanatana, Dec. 1989 (fl.), Dransfield et al. JD6777 (K, TAN). WITHOUT ANY LOCALITY: no date (before 1946) (bud), Homolle 2437 (P)-probably the Cours collection with a wrong label. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A


A. J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae