Bactris concinna Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 99 (1826)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Colombia (Amazonas), Ecuador (Napo. Sucumbíos). Peru (Loreto. Madre de Dios. Ucayali). Brazil (Acre, Amazonas), and Bolivia (Beni. La Paz, Pando. Santa Cruz); lowland rain forest, especially along streams and rivers and in other seasonally inundated areas, at 100-260m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

W Amazon region in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil.
Distribution in Ecuador. In Ecuador it is a common species throughout the E lowlands, forming large colonies on periodically flooded terrain especially along black water streams, or more rarely on river terraces. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

  • Henderson (1995) recognised three varieties of this species, now considered distinct species (Henderson 2000): var. inundata (=B. concinna), var. concinna (=B. martiana) and var. sigmoideae (=B. chaveziae). (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Bactris concinna is diagnosed by its 16-52, regularly arranged, linear pinnae per side, middle pinnae 15-52 x 1-2 cm, staminodial ring, and 2-3 cm long purple-black fruits. Synonymy was established by Henderson (1995), who recognized three varieties. These are given specific rank here, because there appear to be consistent differences among the three, and few, if any, intermediates. Henderson (1995) called the present taxon B. concinna var. inundata. The correct name, however, should have been B. concinna var. concinna. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Common Name

  • Bolivia: marajau. Brazil: maraja. Colombia: caña brava, paipigu (Puinave).Ecuador: ansepara (Quichua), chontilla, nu-que(Siona). Peru: ñejilla. niejilla. palmera. síi (Ese-ejha). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Uses

  • The fruits are edible and are sold in local markets and fed to domestic animals (Henderson & Pardini 1510). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Description

  • Understorey palm. Stems clustered, forming large colonies, 1-8 m tall and 1.5-5 cm in diameter. Leaf blade 1-2 m long; pinnae 30-50 on each side, regularly inserted and spreading in one plane, the central ones 40-70 cm long and 2-3.5 cm wide, lined with small black spines along the midrib and the margins. Inflorescence 25-50 cm long, unbranched or with 2-3, 10-12 cm long branches. Female flowers regularly arranged along the branches. Fruits glossy black, 2-5 cm long, tightly packed; fruiting perianth with a small, lobed calyx, a much longer corolla, and a staminodial ring. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stems cespitose, forming small clumps, 1-4 m tall, 1.5-2 cm diam., erect or often leaning, spiny on internodes.
    Leaves 3-10; leaf spines scattered, black or brownish, terete, to 2 cm long, inter spersed with fewer spines to 10 cm long, dense on lateral margins of sheath and petiole, few or absent on rachis; sheath 18-50 cm long, fibrous on margins; ocrea to 15 cm long; petiole 12-74 cm long; rachis 0.9-2 m long; pinnae 16-52 per side. regularly arranged, spreading in the same plane, linear, with spinules on margins, with a metallic sheen on drying; middle pinnae 15-52 x 1-2 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 14-30 cm long, recurved, not spiny; prophyll 1-22 cm long; peduncular bract 20-40 cm long, moderately covered with black spines to 1.5 cm long ; rachis absent; rachillae 1-2(-3),5-12 cm long, at anthesis glabrous; triads regularly arranged; staminate flowers 6-10 mm long. persistent; sepal lobes 2-4 mm long; petals 6-10 mm long; stamens 6-10; pistillode small or absent; pistillate flowers to 6 mm long; calyx tubular, 3-4 mm long; corolla tubular, to 5 mm long, spinulose; staminodial ring free from the corolla, to 3.5 mm long; fruits 2-3 x 1-1.5 cm. congested on rachillae, irregularly and narrowly obovoid, purple-black, tomentose, sometimes minutely spinulose; mesocarp juicy; endocarpe ellipsoid, the sterile pores displaced longitudinally, the fertile pore displaced latitudinally; endocarp fibers free, numerous, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with small, lobed calyx and much longer, scarcely lobed corolla, with prominent staminodial ring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Materials Examined

  • COLOMBIA. AMAZONAS: Río Loretoyacu, Puerto Nariño, 10 Dec 1945, Duque-Jaramillo 2332 (COL). 25 Apr 1987. Gentry & Menéndez 57098 (MO), 5 Mar 1975. Zarucchi & Schultes 1065 (BH); Amacayacu. 3°3'S. 70°30'W, 19 Jun 1991, Rudas et al. 2166 (MO). 8 Aug 1989. Vasquez et al. 12642 (COL.MO).
    ECUADOR. NAPO: Dureno. Rio Napo, 27 Jun 1966. Pinkley 335a (BH).
    SUCUMÍOS: Río Cuyabeno halfway between inlet of Laguna Grande and Rio Tarapuy, 0°3'S, 76°11'W, 230 m, 23 Jul 1983, Balslev & Cox 4328 (AAU, NY); Cuyabeno, 0°'S, 76°14'W, 16 Nov 1991, W. Palacios et al. 9010 (MO).
    PERU. LORETO: Provo Maynas, Río Itaya, 120 m, 14 Mar 1985. Arévalo & Vasquez 456 (AMAZ), 6 Aug 1972, Croat 18794 (MO); Provo Maynas, Quebrada Tamshiyacu, 25 Jul 1982. Ayala et al. 3595 (AMAZ, MO, NY); Pacaya Samaria, 4°40?S, 74°20'W, 200 m, 15 Sep 1991, Chavez 753 (CUZ, NY); Iquitos, 18 Aug 1972, Croat 19329 (BH, MO), 11 Oct 1985, Gentry et al. 52256 (MO, NY), 3-11 Aug 1929. Killip & A. Smith 27007 (NY, US); Rio Ampiaco, 24 Sep 1972, Croat 20707 (MO); Yanomono, 3°28?S, 72°48'W, 19Feb 1981, Gentry et al. 31493 (MO), 28 Dec 1982, Gentry & Emmons 38764 (MO), 15 Jun 1986, Gentry et al. 54554 (MO); Rio Samiria, 5°2'S 74°30'W, 4 Aug 1982, Gentry et al. 38051 (MO); Jenaro Herrera. 4°55?S, 73°40'W, 14 Sep 1984, Kahn & K. Mejia 1729 (CAY, USM), 29 Aug 1986, Kahn & K. Mejia 1986 (USM), 26 Aug 1982, K. Mejia 72 (USM); Provo Requena, Santa Rosa, Río Ucayali, near Jenaro Herrera, 180 m, 8 Oct 1982, K. Mejia 62 (AMAZ, USM); between Napo and Amazonas. Timicuro to Mazan, 16 May 1960, Moore et al. 8472 (BH, USM); Rio Huallaga, Shitari, 22 May 1960, Moore el al. 8498 (BH); Río Yanayacu, Amazon Lodge, 100 m, 19 Aug 1991, Murphy & Q. Diaz 128(AMAZ); Rio Momón. Caserio Sto. Tomás. 29 Oct 1987, Ruiz & Jaramillo 1096 (AMAZ); Maynas, Manití, 3°42'S, 72°50?W, 13 May 1988, Vasquez 10594 (MO, NY).
    MADREDE DIOS: Tambopata. 12°50?S, 69°17?W, 260 m, 21 Oct 1988, Alexiades 35 (NY), 4 Nov 1988, Alexiades et al. 66 (MO, NY), 9 Nov 1984, H. Young & Stratton 150 (MO, NY); Tambopata, frontier with Bolivia, 12°30'S, 68°40'W, 200 m,13 Aug 1988m Núñez et al. 9832 (CUZ, MO, NY),
    UCAYALI: Pucallapa, 9 May 1960, Moore et al. 8411 (BH); Contamana, 7°20'S, 75°5'W, ca. 200 m, 8 Apr 1981, Vasquez & Jaramillo 1678 (MO).
    BRAZIL. ACRE: Seringal Oriente, 23 Oct 1923, Kuhlmann 703 (RB); Seringal Cachoeira, 35 km SE of Xapuri, 12 Oct 1989, Pillard 841 (NY); Seringal Porongaba, 25 km N of km 4 on Brasiléia-Assis Brasil rd., 23 May-2 Jun 1991, Scarior & Ferreira 566 (NY).
    AMAZONAS: Mun. Benjamin Constant, Rio Javari, between Benjamin Constantand Atalaia do Norte, 4°20'S, 70°20'W, 3 Jan 1989, Henderson et al. 814 (COL, INPA, NY); Borba, Rio Madeira, 30 Dec 1990, Henderson & Pardini 1510 (INPA, K, NY); Mun. Humaitá, near Tres Casas, 14 Sep-11 Oct 1934, Krukoff 6497 (F, G, K, MO, NY, US); Barro Vermelho, left bank of Río Jurua, 6°28'S, 68°46'W, 17 Oct 1991, Pardini 12 (INPA, NY, SPF); Jainu, right bank of Río Jurua, 6°28'S, 68'46'W, 23 Oct 1991, Pardini 34 (INPA, NY, SPF); Altamira, right bank of Rio Jurua, 6°35'S, 68°54'W, 8 Nov 1991, Pardini 43 (INPA, NY, SPF); Ihla Amaraca opposite Tabatinga, 23 Jul 1973, Prance et al. 16726 (BH, NY); Río Marimari, Río Abacaxis. 12 May 1874, Trail 877/XLVIII (K); Rio Juruá, Fortaleza, Nov 1901, Ule 5947 (HBG).
    BOLIVIA. BENI: Prov. Vaca Diez, La Esperanza, 16.5km S of Riberalta. ca. 11°10?S, 66°8'W, 230m, 31 Ju11982, Balick et al. 1365 (NY); Río Yata. SE of Riberalta 14 Nov 1988, Hubbuch 3 (FTG).
    LA PAZ: Prov. Iturralde, Ixiamas, San Antonio, 340 m, 1 Oct 1990, O. Moreno 60 (NY),
    PANDO: Prov. Nicolás Suárez, E Bella Flor, Río TahuaManú, 12°50?S, 67°42'W. 7 Oct 1989, S. Beck et al. 19152 (LPB); Prov. Nicolás Suárez, Los Huerferos, 11°20', 69°15'W, 11 Jul 1972. Ely 5 (NY), 16 Jul 1992, Ely 16 (NY); Prov. Federico Roman, Lorna Alta, Río Madre de Dios, 10°47'S, 65°58'W, 110 m, 18 Jun 1987, Solomon 17142 (NY).
    SANTA CRUZ: Prov. Velasco, Río San Ramón, Florida, 230 m, 29 Oct 1989, L Moreno 15 (NY). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Use Record

  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Alimentación humana. Fruto. (Rios, M., and J. Caballero, Las plantas en la alimentación de la comunidad Ahuano, Amazonía ecuatoriana. 1997)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Alimento an. Fruto. (Cerón, C.E., Etnobiología de los Cofanes de Dureno, provincia de Sucumbíos, Ecuador. 1995)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Animal FoodWildlife attractantFruitsIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Alimento. Fruto. Palanca. Tallo. Utensilio. Tallo. (Cerón, C.E., A. Payaguaje, D. Payaguaje et al., Etnobotánica Secoya. 2005)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsOtherStemIndigenousSecoyaEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousSecoyaEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticStemIndigenousSecoyaEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousSecoyaEcuador
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Artesanias. Semilla. Herramientas.Tronco. Medicinal. Raíz. (…). Muchas de las herramientas de trabajo para la chagra (parcela de cultivos tradicionales, yuca y plátano) y para la selva se hacen a partir de materiales que brindan las palmas, especialmente las de las variedades de Nejilla, B. maraja y B. concinna, donde sus troncos son usados para la elaboración de huecos en el suelo donde luego se siembra el maíz; también se elaboran arcos como herramientas para la cacería. (…). Dentro de las prácticas medicinales las palmas también presentan un papel esencial, e este caso se encuentran 5 especies de las cuales su raíz es usada en infusiones y bebidas para la curación de la malaria, problemas con la orina y como purgantes; el cogollo de la Bacaba es usado en la curación para la picadura de alacrán. (Forero, M.C., Aspectos etnobotánicos de uso y manejo de la familia Arecaceae (palmas) en la comunidad indígena Ticuna de Santa Clara de Tarapoto, del resguardo Ticoya del municipio de Puerto Nariño, Amazonas, Colombia.. 2005)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Medicinal and VeterinaryDigestive systemRootIndigenousTikunaColombia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryUrinary systemRootIndigenousTikunaColombia
    Utensils and ToolsLabour toolsStemIndigenousTikunaColombia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryInfections and infestationsRootIndigenousTikunaColombia
    CulturalPersonal adornmentSeedsIndigenousTikunaColombia
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousTikunaColombia
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Bactris concinna Mart. Español: Nejilla de la altura, Chontilla, Nejilla. Urarina: Atanaií Usos: Construcción — Los tallos con utilizados para las vigas de los techos y como postes en los cercos; las hojas son empleadas para el techado de las viviendas permanentes y temporales. Herramientas y utensilios — Los tallos son utilizados para tablas utilizadas como plataformas en las canoas. Alimenticio — Los frutos maduros son comestibles. Comunidad: 5–10, 12–16, 19, 23–27, 29, 30. Voucher: sin muestra colectada. (Balslev, H., C. Grandez, et al., Useful palms (Arecaceae) near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon. 2008)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionTransportationStemNot identifiedN/APeru
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/APeru
    ConstructionHousesStemNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Bactris concinna Mart. Vernacular name: Dabayuwe (adult). Voucher: Macía et al. #755. Uses: E: The mesocarp is edible. M: A decoction of adventitous roots is drunk to cure colds and bad cough. (Macía, M.J., Multiplicity in palm uses by the Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    Medicinal and VeterinaryRespiratory systemRootIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Caza, comestible. Las hojas ( Dabayoweyabo) se utilizan en la preparación del curaré: estas se separan y se colocan en forma de embudo (Gotohuiñay) por el cual se pasa el agua limpia. Los frutos son buenos para chupar. (Mondragón, M.L., and R. Smith, Bete Quiwiguimamo. Salvando el bosque para vivir sano. 1997)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticEntire leafIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Comestibles. (Albán, J., La mujer y las plantas útiles silvestres en la comunidad Cocama-Cocamilla de los ríos Samiria y Marañon.. 1994)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodNot specifiedIndigenousCocamaPeru
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Conocida en quichua como achupara, el mesocarpo de los frutos se consume sin cocinar cuando están maduros. (Ponce, M., Etnobotánica de palmas de Jatun Sacha. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Edible fruit; borne in cluster 25 cm long, weighing about 2.3 kg. (Vickers, W.T., and T. Plowman, Useful plants of the Siona and Secoya indians of Eastern Ecuador. 1984)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousSiona-SecoyaEcuador
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Edible mesocarp. (Shepard, G.H., D.W. Yu, M. Lizarralde, et al., Rain forest habitat classification among the Matsigenka of the Peruvian Amazon. 2001)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousMatsigenkaPeru
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: El fruto es comestible sin preparación alguna. (Cerón, C.E., Etnobiología de los Cofanes de Dureno, provincia de Sucumbíos, Ecuador. 1995)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousCofánEcuador
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Fruit edible. (Bodley, J.H., and F.C. Benson, Cultural ecology of Amazonian palms. 1979)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousShipibo-ConiboPeru
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Fruits are edible, and used as a sweet. (...). The outer layer of the stem is used as a wading in the compression of gunpowder into muzzle loading rifles. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
    Human FoodFoodSeedsNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousSionaEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousShuarEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousCofánEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousSecoyaEcuador
    Human FoodFoodSeedsNot identifiedN/AEcuador
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Frutal silvestre. (Tournon, J., Las Plantas, los Rao y sus espíritus ( Etnobotánica del Ucayali). 2006)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousShipibo-ConiboPeru
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Frutos comestibles. (Chávez, F., Estudio preliminar de la familia Arecaceae (Palmae) en el Parque Nacional del Manu (Pakitza y Cocha Cashu). 1996)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Los frutos son comestibles y tienen sabor dulce. (Moraes, M., Contribución al estudio del ciclo biológico de la palma Copernicia alba en un área ganadera (Espíritu, Beni, Bolivia). 1991)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/ABolivia
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Se aprovecha el mesocarpo jugoso, agridulce. (Mejía, K., Las palmeras en los mercados de Iquitos. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Sweet pulp. (Vasquez, R., and A.H. Gentry, Use and misuse of forest-harvested fruits in the Iquitos area. 1989)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: The dark purple brown fruits of Bactris concinna, (…), are gathered along the banks of blackwater rivers and streams as well as in swamps, (…). (…). Before the fruits ripen, kids sometimes gather them to eat the embryo, which is still soft when the fruits are green. (…). The fruits occasionally turn up in regional markets and are fed to livestock. (Smith, N., R. Vásquez, and W. H. Wust, Amazon river fruits. Flavors for Conservation. 2007)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodSeedsNot identifiedN/APeru
    Animal FoodFodderFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: The stems are used to make houses and lances. Fruits are edible. (Bennett, B.C., M.A. Baker, and P. Gómez-Andrade, Ethnobotany of the Shuar of Eastern Ecuador. 2002)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousShuarEcuador
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousShuarEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Utensilios y herr. uso doméstico. Tallo. Para reforzar las canastas (borde), y para los palos laterales del "llamachí" (mochila pequeña). Comestible. Palmito. Consumido Cultural. Tallo. Se hacen arcos pequeños para cazar ratones que comen en las casas Comestible. Fruto. El mesocarpo se chupa. (Macía, M.J., Multiplicity in palm uses by the Huaorani of Amazonian Ecuador. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousTacanaBolivia
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousTacanaBolivia
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousTacanaBolivia
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticStemIndigenousTacanaBolivia
  • Bactris concinna Mart.: Wood used in making weapons (Tessmann). (Macbride, J.F., Flora of Peru Vol. XIII Part 1 Nº 2. 1960)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Bactris concinna var. inundata Spruce: Alimento. Fruto. Artesanal. Tallo. (Cerón, C.E., A. Payaguaje, D. Payaguaje et al., Etnobotánica Secoya. 2005 (as Bactris concinna var. inundata Spruce))

Bibliography

A. Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador
B. Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000
C. World Checklist of Arecaceae