Bactris concinna Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 99 (1826)

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
Colombia (Amazonas), Ecuador (Napo. Sucumbíos). Peru (Loreto. Madre de Dios. Ucayali). Brazil (Acre, Amazonas), and Bolivia (Beni. La Paz, Pando. Santa Cruz); lowland rain forest, especially along streams and rivers and in other seasonally inundated areas, at 100-260m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

W Amazon region in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil.
Distribution in Ecuador. In Ecuador it is a common species throughout the E lowlands, forming large colonies on periodically flooded terrain especially along black water streams, or more rarely on river terraces. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Discussion

Common Name

Uses

Description

  • Understorey palm. Stems clustered, forming large colonies, 1-8 m tall and 1.5-5 cm in diameter. Leaf blade 1-2 m long; pinnae 30-50 on each side, regularly inserted and spreading in one plane, the central ones 40-70 cm long and 2-3.5 cm wide, lined with small black spines along the midrib and the margins. Inflorescence 25-50 cm long, unbranched or with 2-3, 10-12 cm long branches. Female flowers regularly arranged along the branches. Fruits glossy black, 2-5 cm long, tightly packed; fruiting perianth with a small, lobed calyx, a much longer corolla, and a staminodial ring. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stems cespitose, forming small clumps, 1-4 m tall, 1.5-2 cm diam., erect or often leaning, spiny on internodes.
    Leaves 3-10; leaf spines scattered, black or brownish, terete, to 2 cm long, inter spersed with fewer spines to 10 cm long, dense on lateral margins of sheath and petiole, few or absent on rachis; sheath 18-50 cm long, fibrous on margins; ocrea to 15 cm long; petiole 12-74 cm long; rachis 0.9-2 m long; pinnae 16-52 per side. regularly arranged, spreading in the same plane, linear, with spinules on margins, with a metallic sheen on drying; middle pinnae 15-52 x 1-2 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 14-30 cm long, recurved, not spiny; prophyll 1-22 cm long; peduncular bract 20-40 cm long, moderately covered with black spines to 1.5 cm long ; rachis absent; rachillae 1-2(-3),5-12 cm long, at anthesis glabrous; triads regularly arranged; staminate flowers 6-10 mm long. persistent; sepal lobes 2-4 mm long; petals 6-10 mm long; stamens 6-10; pistillode small or absent; pistillate flowers to 6 mm long; calyx tubular, 3-4 mm long; corolla tubular, to 5 mm long, spinulose; staminodial ring free from the corolla, to 3.5 mm long; fruits 2-3 x 1-1.5 cm. congested on rachillae, irregularly and narrowly obovoid, purple-black, tomentose, sometimes minutely spinulose; mesocarp juicy; endocarpe ellipsoid, the sterile pores displaced longitudinally, the fertile pore displaced latitudinally; endocarp fibers free, numerous, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with small, lobed calyx and much longer, scarcely lobed corolla, with prominent staminodial ring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

Materials Examined

  • COLOMBIA. AMAZONAS: Río Loretoyacu, Puerto Nariño, 10 Dec 1945, Duque-Jaramillo 2332 (COL). 25 Apr 1987. Gentry & Menéndez 57098 (MO), 5 Mar 1975. Zarucchi & Schultes 1065 (BH); Amacayacu. 3°3'S. 70°30'W, 19 Jun 1991, Rudas et al. 2166 (MO). 8 Aug 1989. Vasquez et al. 12642 (COL.MO).
    ECUADOR. NAPO: Dureno. Rio Napo, 27 Jun 1966. Pinkley 335a (BH).
    SUCUMÍOS: Río Cuyabeno halfway between inlet of Laguna Grande and Rio Tarapuy, 0°3'S, 76°11'W, 230 m, 23 Jul 1983, Balslev & Cox 4328 (AAU, NY); Cuyabeno, 0°'S, 76°14'W, 16 Nov 1991, W. Palacios et al. 9010 (MO).
    PERU. LORETO: Provo Maynas, Río Itaya, 120 m, 14 Mar 1985. Arévalo & Vasquez 456 (AMAZ), 6 Aug 1972, Croat 18794 (MO); Provo Maynas, Quebrada Tamshiyacu, 25 Jul 1982. Ayala et al. 3595 (AMAZ, MO, NY); Pacaya Samaria, 4°40?S, 74°20'W, 200 m, 15 Sep 1991, Chavez 753 (CUZ, NY); Iquitos, 18 Aug 1972, Croat 19329 (BH, MO), 11 Oct 1985, Gentry et al. 52256 (MO, NY), 3-11 Aug 1929. Killip & A. Smith 27007 (NY, US); Rio Ampiaco, 24 Sep 1972, Croat 20707 (MO); Yanomono, 3°28?S, 72°48'W, 19Feb 1981, Gentry et al. 31493 (MO), 28 Dec 1982, Gentry & Emmons 38764 (MO), 15 Jun 1986, Gentry et al. 54554 (MO); Rio Samiria, 5°2'S 74°30'W, 4 Aug 1982, Gentry et al. 38051 (MO); Jenaro Herrera. 4°55?S, 73°40'W, 14 Sep 1984, Kahn & K. Mejia 1729 (CAY, USM), 29 Aug 1986, Kahn & K. Mejia 1986 (USM), 26 Aug 1982, K. Mejia 72 (USM); Provo Requena, Santa Rosa, Río Ucayali, near Jenaro Herrera, 180 m, 8 Oct 1982, K. Mejia 62 (AMAZ, USM); between Napo and Amazonas. Timicuro to Mazan, 16 May 1960, Moore et al. 8472 (BH, USM); Rio Huallaga, Shitari, 22 May 1960, Moore el al. 8498 (BH); Río Yanayacu, Amazon Lodge, 100 m, 19 Aug 1991, Murphy & Q. Diaz 128(AMAZ); Rio Momón. Caserio Sto. Tomás. 29 Oct 1987, Ruiz & Jaramillo 1096 (AMAZ); Maynas, Manití, 3°42'S, 72°50?W, 13 May 1988, Vasquez 10594 (MO, NY).
    MADREDE DIOS: Tambopata. 12°50?S, 69°17?W, 260 m, 21 Oct 1988, Alexiades 35 (NY), 4 Nov 1988, Alexiades et al. 66 (MO, NY), 9 Nov 1984, H. Young & Stratton 150 (MO, NY); Tambopata, frontier with Bolivia, 12°30'S, 68°40'W, 200 m,13 Aug 1988m Núñez et al. 9832 (CUZ, MO, NY),
    UCAYALI: Pucallapa, 9 May 1960, Moore et al. 8411 (BH); Contamana, 7°20'S, 75°5'W, ca. 200 m, 8 Apr 1981, Vasquez & Jaramillo 1678 (MO).
    BRAZIL. ACRE: Seringal Oriente, 23 Oct 1923, Kuhlmann 703 (RB); Seringal Cachoeira, 35 km SE of Xapuri, 12 Oct 1989, Pillard 841 (NY); Seringal Porongaba, 25 km N of km 4 on Brasiléia-Assis Brasil rd., 23 May-2 Jun 1991, Scarior & Ferreira 566 (NY).
    AMAZONAS: Mun. Benjamin Constant, Rio Javari, between Benjamin Constantand Atalaia do Norte, 4°20'S, 70°20'W, 3 Jan 1989, Henderson et al. 814 (COL, INPA, NY); Borba, Rio Madeira, 30 Dec 1990, Henderson & Pardini 1510 (INPA, K, NY); Mun. Humaitá, near Tres Casas, 14 Sep-11 Oct 1934, Krukoff 6497 (F, G, K, MO, NY, US); Barro Vermelho, left bank of Río Jurua, 6°28'S, 68°46'W, 17 Oct 1991, Pardini 12 (INPA, NY, SPF); Jainu, right bank of Río Jurua, 6°28'S, 68'46'W, 23 Oct 1991, Pardini 34 (INPA, NY, SPF); Altamira, right bank of Rio Jurua, 6°35'S, 68°54'W, 8 Nov 1991, Pardini 43 (INPA, NY, SPF); Ihla Amaraca opposite Tabatinga, 23 Jul 1973, Prance et al. 16726 (BH, NY); Río Marimari, Río Abacaxis. 12 May 1874, Trail 877/XLVIII (K); Rio Juruá, Fortaleza, Nov 1901, Ule 5947 (HBG).
    BOLIVIA. BENI: Prov. Vaca Diez, La Esperanza, 16.5km S of Riberalta. ca. 11°10?S, 66°8'W, 230m, 31 Ju11982, Balick et al. 1365 (NY); Río Yata. SE of Riberalta 14 Nov 1988, Hubbuch 3 (FTG).
    LA PAZ: Prov. Iturralde, Ixiamas, San Antonio, 340 m, 1 Oct 1990, O. Moreno 60 (NY),
    PANDO: Prov. Nicolás Suárez, E Bella Flor, Río TahuaManú, 12°50?S, 67°42'W. 7 Oct 1989, S. Beck et al. 19152 (LPB); Prov. Nicolás Suárez, Los Huerferos, 11°20', 69°15'W, 11 Jul 1972. Ely 5 (NY), 16 Jul 1992, Ely 16 (NY); Prov. Federico Roman, Lorna Alta, Río Madre de Dios, 10°47'S, 65°58'W, 110 m, 18 Jun 1987, Solomon 17142 (NY).
    SANTA CRUZ: Prov. Velasco, Río San Ramón, Florida, 230 m, 29 Oct 1989, L Moreno 15 (NY). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)B

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