Geonoma orbignyana subsp. orbignyana

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombiapresent (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)A
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
From 11°06'N-17°47'S and 64°14-79°45'W in the Andes of South America in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia at 1966(775-2850) m elevation in montane rainforest. (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)A

Discussion

  • Discussion: This subspecies is widely distributed and extremely variable. There is geographical variation, although much less than in the sympatric Geonoma undata. Regression shows there are significant associations between elevation and six leaf and three inflorescence variables. Squared multiple R for the regression of leaf number on elevation is 0.15, number of pinnae 0.03, basal pinna width 0.04, basal pinna angle 0.08, apical pinna width 0.08, apical pinna angle 0.10, prophyll length 0.08, interbract distance 0.15, and peduncle length 0.06. Plants at higher elevations have fewer leaves with fewer pinnae, wider basal and apical pinnae with narrower angles, and longer prophylls, interbract distances, and peduncles. Specimens from the Venezuelan Andes (lindeniana morphotype) have leaves with 6(3-14) pinnae per side of the rachis and inflorescences with 7(4-14) rachillae. The types of G. lindeniana, G. margyraffia, and G. ramosa are from this region. Specimens occur in three areas. Those from Yaracuy have slender inflorescences branched to one order, few rachillae, and fruits which are obviously apiculate. Specimens from Trujillo are similar, except that one (Dorr 7315) has inflorescences branched to two orders, and the fruits are less obviously apiculate. Specimens from Táchira have stouter inflorescences with shorter peduncles, shorter inter?bract distances, and more, wider rachillae with a distinctive, thinner, sterile basal part. Several specimens from Cesar and Norte de Santander in Colombia are similar. Specimens from Colombia in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (pumila morphotype) have smaller leaves with 2(2-3) pinnae per side of the rachis and slender inflorescences with 5(3-9) rachillae. The type of G. pumila is from this area. Specimens from the central part of the Eastern Cordillera in Colombia (Boyacá, Cundinamarca, Meta, Norte de Santander, Santander)(linearifolia morphotype) have mostly regularly pinnate leaves with 16(3-26) pinnae per side of the rachis and branched, rarely unbranched inflorescences with 5(1-12) rachillae. The type of G. linearifolia is from this area. One specimen from Cudinamarca (Grant 9177) has larger leaves and a large stout inflorescence, much larger than other specimens. Several specimens (Betancur 6220, Bernal 1342, 3512, 3513, Betancur 5714, Sánchez Vega 6696) from the Eastern Cordillera are larger than others and appear intermediate between this morphotype and the weberbaueri morphotype of G. undata subsp. undata. These may be hybrids and are excluded from the above descriptions and analyses. A few other specimens (Bernal 2900 - the type of G. wilsonii, Bernal 2901, Malagon 26) from Caquetá in the southern part of the Eastern Cordillera (wilsonii morphotype) are much reduced in size. Specimens from the Central and Western Cordilleras in Colombia (plicata morphotype) have leaves with 4(1-14) pinnae per side of the rachis and stout, often elongate inflorescences with 9(3-24) rachillae. Specimens from the Cerro San José and adjacent areas in Antioquia have plicate leaves. The types of Geonoma plicata, G. paleacea, G. goniocarpa, G. aulacophylla, G. lepidota, and G. microclada are from this area. Specimens from northern Ecuador are similar. On the eastern Andean slopes of Ecuador on the Cordillera de Huacamayos (baeza morphotype) specimens have leaves with 4(3-6) pinnae per side of the rachis and slender inflorescences with 5(1-9) rachillae with the peduncular bract inserted well above the prophyll and exerted from it. Specimens from southern Ecuador and northern Peru, and continuing south to Bolivia (southern morphotype), are very variable. In northern Peru, there are three distinct groups of specimens from San Martín occurring in the same area. One group (Gentry 45513, Smith 4590) has regularly pinnate leaves and inflorescences branched to two orders; the second (Smith 4842) has regularly pinnate leaves and two, thick rachillae; and the third (Gentry 45312, 45403, 45512, 45538) with undivided leaves and few, thin rachillae. There are two very distinct groups from the Cerro del Sira in Huánuco. One has finely pinnate leaves and small inflorescences and occurs at lower elevations (Dudley 13064, Rainer 133288, 1330188, 2214988, 2314988, Wolfe 12335); the second (Rainer 2513988) has irregularly pinnate leaves and larger inflorescences, and occurs at higher elevations.Specimens from southern part of Peru (Cuzco, Pasco, Puno) have wider rachillae. In Bolivia, some specimens have wide apical pinna and short, thick, densely tomentose rachillae, e.g., the type of G. pachydicrana. Other specimens have narrow and widely spaced pinnae, unbranched or branched inflorescences (sometimes on the same specimen), the bracts cover the peduncle, and glabrous rachillae. The types of G. orbignyana and G. jussieuana have this kind of inflorescence. (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)A

Description

  • Inflorescences peduncular bracts 17.4(3.0-35.5) cm long; peduncles 25.8(6.0-59.5) cm long. (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)A

Bibliography

A. Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae