Livistona jenkinsiana Griff., Calcutta J. Nat. Hist. 5: 334 (1845)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_114941_3.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Assampresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Bangladeshpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
China South-Centralpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
East Himalayapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Malayapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Myanmarpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Thailandpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
India, Sikkim, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China and Thailand. In northeast India in the Naga Hills, Khasia Hills, Jainita Hills, Nowgong, Darjeerling Hills; in Siang, Lohit and Tirap Valleys in Arunachal Pradesh; and Gubro Purbat in Assam. In Sikkim in the Teesta Valley; Bangladesh in Chittagong; China, in Yunnan; and in northern and peninsular Thailand (Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Habitat

  • In high rainfall areas in moist evergreen forest mostly on sandy loam with a laterite mixture, at 100-2500 m altitude. Datta and Rawat (2003) observed foraging of mature fruit by Hornbills in northeast India. Flowers Jul?Aug; fruits Oct? Nov. (Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Discussion

  • Livistona jenkinsiana was first described by Griffith (1845), based on observations at Gubro and a collection made in 1836 from Assam by the British Commissioner of Assam, Major-General F. Jenkins (1793-1866), and named in his honour. The type is in BR. Martius (1849) published the orthographic variation L. jenkinsii and provided a description of the inflorescence and flowers based on information given to him by Griffith. Griffith (1850) provided an expanded description, with illustrations (Plates 226A and 226B) of a leaf, a partial inflorescence, flowers and fruit. Livistona jenkinsiana is a moderate canopy palm to 10 m tall; leaves are large and regularly segmented; segment apices are rigid, and with a bifurcate cleft to 16% of the segment length; the inflorescence is unbranched, not extending beyond the limit of the crown, and with up to 6 partial inflorescences; bracts are loosely tubular; flowers are greenish cream; fruit are globose to reniform, to 28 mm long to 25 mm wide, and leaden blue to dark bluish purple at maturity. (Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Conservation

  • Near threatened. (Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Uses

  • Leaves are used for thatch and hats (Lepchas tribe of northeast India and Sikkim). The endosperm, presumably prior to maturity, is reported to be consumed. (Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Description

  • Hermaphroditic palm. Trunk to 10 m tall, 15-23 cm dbh, leaf scars prominent, narrow, roughened, light coloured, internodes narrow, dark coloured, petiole bases persistent in the lower portion. Leaves 20-50 in a ± globose crown; petiole 130-200 cm long, 20-25 mm wide distally, adaxially slightly concave, margins armed throughout with single or double retrorsely recurved reddish to brown spines 15-20 mm long, 10-12 mm wide at the base, base frequently swollen, spines reducing in size to tubercles toward the apex; leaf-base fibres moderately prominent, coarse, disintegrating or persistent; appendage to 25 cm long; lamina costapalmate, regularly segmented, ovate-reniform in outline, 105-130 cm long, 150-200 cm wide, adaxially shiny green, abaxially subglaucescent grey or bluish; lamina 8-16% of the segment length, 3-8 cm wide where the segments diverge, apical lobes rigid; parallel veins 9-10 each side of midrib; transverse veins thinner than parallel veins; hastula cordate. Inflorescences unbranched at the base, 60-100 cm long, not extending beyond the limit of the crown, branched to 3 orders; partial inflorescences 3-6; prophyll 30-45 cm long, woody, keeled; peduncular bract(s) lacking; rachis bracts loosely tubular, reddish-brown, glabrous, expanded distally into lanceolate acuminate lobes, sometimes longitudinally split, scurfy to glabrous; rachillae 10-30 cm long, 3-4 mm wide, rigid, yellow-green, puberulous. Flowers in clusters of 3-5, sessile, greenish cream, with inconspicuous bracteoles; sepals fused basally, fleshy, 1.2-4 mm long, 1.3-1.5 mm wide, lobes broadly ovate, with thin and subhyaline margins; petals basally fused, deltoid, acute, 2.5-4 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide; stamens with basally fused filaments, thick and short, contracted into elongate apices, connective very short, narrow; carpel turbinate-obconical, yellow, distinctly sculptured, and contracted into a short trisulcate, filiform style, stigma simple. Fruit globose to reniform, 19- 28 mm long, 16-25 mm diam., somewhat asymmetrical, apically rounded, slightly tapered below to an acute base, leaden blue to dark bluish-purple; epicarp very thin, with scattered lenticellular pores; suture line extends full length of the fruit, marked with lip-like structures; mesocarp succulent, moderately fibrous or lacking fibres; endocarp woody, brittle, cinnamon brown inside, 0.5-1 mm wide; pedicel 3-6 mm long, 2.5-4 mm wide. Seed globose, 17-20 mm diam., slightly flattened on one side; intruded broadly and deeply by the testa; embryo sublateral. Eophyll 7-ribbed. (Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Materials Examined

  • Specimens examined: INDIA: Assam. Nowgong, Jenkins s.n. (BR holotype); Valley of the Mali Itka, Masum, PutooRd, 1000-2500 m alt., Kingdon-Ward 1288 (BM); Assam. Griffith 1205 (BM). CHINA: Yunnan. You-louh Shan, Che-li Hsien, Wang 78114 (A); THAILAND: Mae Hong Son, Doi Nam Bon Musir, Smith 18 (K); Mae Hong Son, Nai Sai Village, Smith 21 (K); Chiang Mai, Doi Suthep, ca 1200 m alt., Kerr 3430 (AAU, K, NY); Chiang Mai, Doi Suthep, ca 1500 m alt., Kerr 4686 (AAU, BK, BM, K, NY); Chiang Mai, Suthep, Hue Me Pan, Doi Suthep, Rock 437 (K); Phetchabum, Muanga Lom, Kao Keo Ngoi, ca 900 m alt., Kerr 5761 (AAU, BK, BM, NY); Chaiyaphum, Pu Kio, ca 1000 m alt., Kerr 20241 (AAU, BK, BM, NY); Nakhon Ratchasima, Khao Yai NP, near headquarters, Whitmore 3172 with Chamlong (K); Nakorn Ratchasima, Khao Yai NP, Phatabak, Smith 3 (K); Ranong, La-un, Kerr 16472 (AAU, BK, K); Suratthani, Kaw Tao, ca 200 m alt., Kerr 16033 (AAU, BK, K, BM); Suratthani, Ban Ta Khun, Bang Chang, Klong Saeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Smith 66 with Sumawong (K); Pattani, Kao Kalakiri, ca 900 m alt., Kerr 7791 (AAU, BK, BM, K).
    Specimens from cultivated material: Indonesia: Bogor Botanic Gardens, May 1878, Beccari s.n. (FI); Singapore: Singapore Botanic Gardens, Apr?May 1936, C.X. Furtado 31108 (L). (Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Bibliography

A. Dowe, J.L., A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae)
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae