Bactris Jacq. ex Scop., Intr. Hist. Nat. : 70 (1777)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_19042_1.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Belizepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil Northeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil Southpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil Southeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil West-Centralpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Cubapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Dominican Republicpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
El Salvadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
French Guianapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Guatemalapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Guyanapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Haitipresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Honduraspresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Jamaicapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Mexico Gulfpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Mexico Southeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Mexico Southwestpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Nicaraguapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Paraguaypresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Surinamepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Trinidad-Tobagopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Venezuelan Antillespresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Although over 230 species have been described in the past, Henderson (2000), using a broad species concept in his recent monograph, has brought order to the genus. Seventy-seven species are currently accepted, distributed from Mexico and the West Indies south to Paraguay, with the greatest diversity in Brazil. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Discussion

  • This genus is distinguished by staminate flowers in triads or dispersed among the triads on the rachillae and by pistillate flowers with united petals. Several attempts have been made to divide the genus into infrageneric groupings (e.g., Sanders 1991), some of which have also been elevated to generic rank. Henderson (2000) recognises none of these, preferring to use six informal groupings, which he clearly indicates as being groupings of convenience that are not necessarily natural. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Diagnosis

  • Extremely variable genus of spiny pinnate-leaved palms from Central and South America and the Caribbean, with almost always acute not praemorse leaflets, or entire margins. The staminate flowers are borne in triads along with the pistillate, not concentrated at the tips of the rachillae. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Biology And Ecology

  • It is not surprising that there are species of Bactris adapted to a very wide range of habitats in the lowlands and uplands, but the genus appears to be absent from montane forest. There are species confined to the undergrowth of tropical rain forest, others adapted to the landward fringe of mangrove, to white sand savannahs, and to freshwater swamp forest. Pollination in Bactris, where known, is by beetles (many studies, e.g., Essig 1971a, Beach 1984, and reviewed by Listabarth 1996). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Common Name

  • Peach palm, pejibaye, chonta, pupunha (Bactris gasipaes). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Etymology

  • Probably derived from baktron — stick, cane, staff, because of the slender stems of many species. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Uses

  • Economically, the most important species is B. gasipaes (Guilielma gasipaes), which is widely cultivated and not known in the truly wild state (Mora-Urpi 1983); this species is thought to be one of the oldest of all domesticated palms and its endocarps have been found in early archaeological sites (Morcote-Rios and Bernal 2001). It produces thick mesocarp flesh that is edible and tasty after cooking, and that is sufficiently rich in nutrients and vitamins to be an important constituent of the diet of rural people. The ‘cabbage’ of the same species is edible and good. See also Guerrero and Clement (1982) for references on B. gasipaes. Other species have edible fruits and some have been used as a source of walking sticks, and for thatch and fibre. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Description

  • Diminutive to large, solitary or clustered, unarmed (rarely) to very spiny, pleonanthic, monoecious palms. Stems subterranean and very short, to erect, very slender to moderate, with short to long internodes and, eventually, with conspicuous nodal scars, often scaly, frequently armed with short to long spines. Leaves pinnate or entire bifid, marcescent or neatly deciduous; sheaths usually splitting opposite the petiole, the margins smooth or becoming fibrous, unarmed to densely spiny, glabrous, scaly, hairy or bristly, a ligule-like projection sometimes also present; petiole very short to long, adaxially channelled, flat, or angled, abaxially rounded, variously unarmed to spiny; rachis usually longer than the petiole, adaxially angled except near base where channelled or not, abaxially rounded to flattened, variously armed or unarmed; blade where undivided with smooth or spiny margins, numerous ribs and an apical V-shaped notch, leaflets 1–several-fold, regularly arranged or irregularly grouped, often held in different planes within the groups, linear, lanceolate, or sigmoid, the tips very rarely praemorse (Bactris caryotifolia), acute or acuminate in a long drip tip, more rarely bifid or irregularly lobed, sometimes the abaxial surface covered in chalky-white indumentum, sometimes spiny along midrib on abaxial surface, the margins often bristly, blade surfaces sometimes softly hairy, midrib prominent adaxially, transverse veinlets conspicuous or obscure. Inflorescences interfoliar, or mostly becoming infrafoliar, solitary, spicate (rarely) or branching to 1 order, protogynous; peduncle usually relatively short, sometimes elongate, ± curved, oval in cross-section, armed or unarmed; prophyll short, tubular, 2-keeled, tightly sheathing, often concealed within the leaf sheath, usually membranous, unarmed, splitting along the abaxial face; peduncular bract inserted near the base of the peduncle, usually persistent, much longer than the prophyll, enclosing the rachillae in bud, coriaceous to woody, tightly sheathing the peduncle, tubular, later splitting longitudinally in distal region and often expanding and becoming boat-shaped or cowl-like, usually bearing indumentum, often bearing spines on the outer face, inner face smooth, sometimes conspicuously cream-coloured, rarely a second peduncular bract present; rachis usually shorter than the peduncle, bearing spirally arranged, rather stiff, ± glabrous, densely hairy or bristly rachillae, each subtended by an inconspicuous triangular bract; rachillae bearing spirally arranged, usually rather crowded, small triangular rachilla bracts subtending flower groups, flowers borne in triads ± throughout the rachillae, or triads scattered among paired or solitary staminate flowers ± throughout, or triads borne in proximal ca. 1/2 and solitary or paired staminate flowers distally; floral bracteoles minute. Staminate flowers often somewhat asymmetrical, sessile, or rarely borne on slender, unequal pedicels; calyx cupular or spreading, very short, shallowly trilobed; petals 3, fleshy, asymmetrically triangular, distally valvate, connate basally to ca. 1/2 their length and adnate basally to a fleshy floral axis; stamens (3–)6(–12), filaments slender, inflexed at the apex nearly from the middle in bud, sometimes curved, anthers usually dorsifixed, short to elongate, ±versatile, latrorse; pistillode absent. Pollen grains ellipsoidal, or oblate-triangular, usually with either slight or obvious asymmetry; aperture a distal sulcus or trichotomosulcus; ectexine tectate, usually, finely to coarsely rugulate, perforate and/or micro-channelled, or psilate with usually widely spaced perforations, less frequently finely perforate rugulate tectum with either supratectal spines, verrucae or gemmae, aperture margin may be slightly finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis ranges from 28–52 µm [42/73]. Pistillate flowers scarcely larger than the staminate; calyx annular, somewhat flattened or urn-shaped, truncate or very shallowly 3-lobed, sometimes hairy, scaly or spinulose; corolla much longer than the calyx or ± the same length, urn-shaped, truncate or very shallowly 3-lobed, variously hairy or spiny or glabrous; staminodes absent or forming a membranous ring, not adnate to the corolla; gynoecium columnar to ovoid, sometimes spiny or hairy, trilocular, triovulate, stigmas 3, very short, ovules laterally attached, orthotropous. Fruit usually 1-seeded, very small to large, ovoid, obpyriform, oblate, or top-shaped, yellow, red, green, brown, purple, or black; epicarp smooth, spiny, roughened or hairy, mesocarp thin to very thick, fleshy, juicy or starchy with sparse or abundant fibres, endocarp thick, bony, with 3 pores at or above the equator, sometimes with fibres radiating from the pores. Seed irregularly globular, basally attached, hilum circular, raphe branches sparsely anastomosing (?always) endosperm homogeneous, with or without a central hollow; embryo next to one of the endocarp pores. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid or rarely pinnate, often spiny, bristly or hairy. Cytology: 2n = 30. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Anatomy

  • Leaf morphology (Clement and Urpi 1983), anatomy (Tomlinson 1961, Roth 1990), root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b), flower (Uhl and Moore 1971, 1977a) and seed (Werker 1997). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Fossil record

  • From the Middle Eocene of southeastern North America (Claiborne Group), very fragmentary pinnate fronds, some with spiny margins, are referred to Bactrites pandanifoliolus (Berry 1924). However, the leaves referred to Bactrites cannot safely be attributed to the extant genus; fossil vegetative parts, especially spines, can bear some resemblance to Bactris but there should be caution in equating them (Uhl and Dransfield 1987). Hollick (1928) compared fossil fruit from the Middle Oligocene of Puerto Rico, named Bactris pseudocuesco, with fruit of Bactris cuesco Engl. (= B. corossilla), and commented that, “the fossils can hardly be distinguished.” (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Relationships

  • Bactris is monophyletic with high support (Couvreur et al. 2007). For relationships, see Acrocomia. For interspecies relationships, see Couvreur et al. (2007). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Taxonomic accounts

  • Henderson (2000). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Use Record

  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Alimentación. Artesanía (ahorros, trampas). Frutos-semilla, estípite. (García Cossio, F., Y.A. Ramos, J.C. Palacios, and A. Ríos, La familia Arecaceae, recurso promisorio para la economía en el Departamento del Chocó. 2002)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsOtherSeedsNot identifiedN/AColombia
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/AColombia
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemNot identifiedN/AColombia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Alimentación. Planta para uso doméstico. (Ortiz, R., Uso, conocimiento y manejo de lagunos recursos naturales en el mundo Yucuna (Mirití-Paraná, Amazonas, Colombia).. 1994)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticNot specifiedIndigenousYucunaColombia
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousYucunaColombia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Antídoto (contra veneno) de picadura de raya. Se machuca la hoja y exprime el jugo. (Kronik, J. et al., Fééjahisuu. Palmas de los Nietos de la Tierra y Montaña Verde del Centro. 1999)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Medicinal and VeterinaryPoisoningsEntire leafIndigenousMuinaneColombia
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingNot specifiedIndigenousMuinaneColombia
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousMuinaneColombia
    CulturalRecreationalNot specifiedIndigenousMuinaneColombia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Arcos de muchachos. (Romanoff, S., D. Manquid, F. Shoque, and D.W. Fleck, La vida tradicional de los Matsés. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    CulturalRecreationalStemIndigenousMatsésPeru
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Bactris spp. Chonta. Wood. Ceremonial staffs. Construction of houses and roofs. (Bussmann, R.W., and D. Sharon, Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. 2006)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    CulturalRitualNot specifiedNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    ConstructionThatchStemNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafNot identifiedN/AEcuador
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Bows and barbed arrow points are made from the wood of väij (Bactris sp.), a cultivated palm often found in fallows. (…). Chimane often take trips to gather at sites which, reportedly, belonged to their forefathers but that thay no longer actively manage. This is especially true when gathering väij (Bactis sp.) and (…). (…). During the wet season i recorded important yields of Bactris sp and mana´i (Scheelea princeps) in Puerto Méndez and Chaco Brasil. (…). These fruits were mainly eaten as snack food during the day. (Chicchon, A., Chimane resource use and market involvement in The Beni Biosphere Reserve, Bolivia. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousTsimaneBolivia
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousTsimaneBolivia
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousTsimaneBolivia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Cayapas. Palm heart and cooked fruits edible. (Barfod, A., and H. Balslev, The use of palms by the Cayapas and Coaiqueres on the Coastal plain of Ecuador. 1988)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousCayapaEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousCayapaEcuador
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Edible fruit. (Phillips, O.L., The potential for harvesting fruits in tropical rainforests: new data from Amazonian Peru. 1993)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsMestizoN/APeru
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: El fruto fresco es comestible. (La Rotta, C., Observaciones etnobotánicas sobre algunas especies utilizadas por la comunidad indígena Andoque (Amazonas, Colombia). 1983)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousAndoqueColombia
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousAndoqueColombia
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousAndoqueColombia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: En algunas partes del Departamento del Chocó se utilizan las hojas de esta palma conocida con el nombre de Chacarrá, para envolver carne, harina y, en general, alimentos crudos y cocidos. (Díaz Piedrahita, S., Las hojas de las plantas como envoltura de alimentos. 1981)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsWrappersEntire leafNot identifiedN/AColombia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Es urpi chunda, se utiliza el tronco raspado para las ventanas. (...). Se obtiene raspando del tronco aserrín para el taco de la escopeta. (Ponce, M., Etnobotánica de palmas de Jatun Sacha. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Floors are made of split-trunk slats (or hand-sawn boards) taken from a variety of palms, depending upon elevation. In the higher elevation gualte (Geonoma) is preferred, while in the lower elevations barrigonas ( Catoblastus, Wettinia, Socratea, and Bactris) are common. (Orejuela, J.E., Traditional productive systems of the Awa (Cuaiquer) indians of soutwestern Colombia and neighboring Ecuador. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousAwáColombia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Fruit, mesocarp. (Mejía, K., Las palmeras en los mercados de Iquitos. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsMestizoN/APeru
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Fruits eaten. (…). Formerly the wood of Astrocaryum, Bactris, and Guilielma, were used for making bows and arrows, now rare among the acculturated Chocó. (Duke, J.A., Ethnobotanical observations on the Chocó Indians. 1970)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousNot specifiedColombia
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousNot specifiedColombia
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousNot specifiedColombia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: In the training and indoctrination of Desano payés or medicine men on the Vaupés River, splinters of the macana palm, Bactris (Pyrenoglyphis) sp., play an important role.(…). This splinters are the magic darts by means of which medicine men can send sickness and death to all who have broken the moral code or to far off enemies. (Schultes, R.E., Palms and religion in the Northwest Amazon. 1974)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    CulturalRitualStemIndigenousDesanosColombia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Los frutos de muchas de ellas se pueden comer directamente. Una excepción es la varidedad que produce frutos rojos entre noviembre y enero: éstos son incomestibles. (…). El tronco de marajaú se usa en la construcción de tejados. También se utiliza para limpiar cañones de escopeta. (Proctor, P., J. Pelham, B. Baum, C. Ely, M.A. Rogríguez-Girones, Expedición de la Universidad de Oxford a Bolivia. Investigación etnobotánica de las Palmae en el noroeste del departamento de Pando. 25 junio-7 de septiembre de 1992. Informe final: Secci...)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticStemNot identifiedN/ABolivia
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/ABolivia
    ConstructionThatchStemNot identifiedN/ABolivia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Los frutos de otras especies silvestres de Bactris, de pulpa delgada y acídula, se comen directamente en el campo. (…). También los implementos de caza y pesca se fabrican con palmas: las cerbatanas o bodoqueras se elaboran con los tallos de las especies de Catoblastus y Wettinia; las catangas, o trampas para pescar, se construyen con matamba y chacarrá; con las semillas de la tagua se fabricaban antiguamente unos pitos eficientes para atraer a los animales de caza. (Bernal, R., and G. Galeano, Las palmas del andén Pacífico.. 1993)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousNot specifiedColombia
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingNot specifiedIndigenousNot specifiedColombia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Los frutos sirven como alimento contra la debilidad. Las raíces en mate sirven para curar el mal de orín, chancro, y los líquidos de mal olor de la vagina. (Quintana, G., and L. Vargas, Guia popular de plantas utilizadas por los Mosetenes de Covendo, Santa Ana y Muchanes (Alto Beni, Bolivia). 1995)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Medicinal and VeterinaryReproductive system and sexual healthRootIndigenousMoseteneBolivia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryNot specifiedFruitsIndigenousMoseteneBolivia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryUrinary systemRootIndigenousMoseteneBolivia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Los tacana conocen dos variedades de esta palmera silvestre. Sus frutas se comen; y de la madera elaboran pequeños arcos y flechas para los niños, utilizados también en la caza de ratas. (Hissink, K., and A. Hahn, Los Tacana- datos sobre la historia de su civilización. 2000)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousTacanaBolivia
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousTacanaBolivia
    CulturalRecreationalStemIndigenousTacanaBolivia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Nombre de las palmeras que dan la madera conocida como "chonta", la cual es muy dura y de color negro con pequeños jaspes blancos. Muy cotizada para pisos, muebles y múltiples usos en trabajos corrientes. (Barriga, R., Plantas útiles de la Amazonia Peruana: características, usos y posibilidades.. 1994)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemNot identifiedN/APeru
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticStemNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Ornamental. (...). Cultivada. (Albán, J., La mujer y las plantas útiles silvestres en la comunidad Cocama-Cocamilla de los ríos Samiria y Marañon.. 1994)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalOrnamentalEntire plantIndigenousCocamaPeru
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousCocamaPeru
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Packing for gun cartridges ( Bactris sp.). (…). Fresh fruits edible (Bactris sp., Phytelephas microcarpa, Ammandra sp., Palandra aequatorialis, Aiphanes caryotaefolia, Aiphanes eggersii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Astrocaryum chambira, Astrocaryum standleyanum, Desmoncus sp., Geonoma sp.). (Balslev, H., and A. Barfod, Ecuadorean palms- an overview. 1987)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingNot specifiedNot identifiedN/AEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/AEcuador
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Palm hearts, fruit pulp. Vegetable, beverage. (Pohle, P., and S. Reinhardt, Indigenous knowledge of plants and their utilization among the Shuar of the lower tropical mountain forest in southern Ecuador.. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsIndigenousShuarEcuador
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Planta comestible recolectada. Parte comestible, fruto. (Chirif, A., Salud y nutrición en sociedades nativas. 1978)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Present in Slash-and-burn agricultural plots. (...). Crop in garden of household. (Salick, J., Ecological basis of Amuesha agriculture, Peruvian upper Amazon. 1989)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousYaneshaPeru
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Se come la fruta. Anteriormente se hizo anzuelo tradicional. Sirve para trampa de panguana y sal vegetal para el ambíl. (Kronik, J. et al., Fééjahisuu. Palmas de los Nietos de la Tierra y Montaña Verde del Centro. 1999)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Medicinal and VeterinaryPoisoningsEntire leafIndigenousMuinaneColombia
    CulturalRecreationalNot specifiedIndigenousMuinaneColombia
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousMuinaneColombia
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingNot specifiedIndigenousMuinaneColombia
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: Su madera es la mejor para la fabricación de lanzas. El fruto es comestible y con el se prepara una bebida fermentada. (Guallart, J.M., Nomenclatura Jibaro-Aguaruna de Palmeras en el Distrito de Cenepa.. 1968)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingStemIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousAguarunaPeru
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsIndigenousAguarunaPeru
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: The leaves are commonly used for thatch, and the fruit is eaten. (Davis, E.W., and J.A. Yost, The ethnobotany of the Waorani of eastern Ecuador. 1983)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousHuaoraniEcuador
  • Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.: The leaves of this abundant six-foot palm formerly were reduced to ashes and added to Caryocar fish poison to made more active the ichthyotoxic mixture with mud (Cf. Caryocar). (Schultes, R.E., and R.F. Raffauf, The healing forest- Medicinal and toxic plants of the Northwest Amazonia. 1990)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingEntire leafIndigenousNot specifiedColombia
  • Guilielma Mart.: Albura y madera del tronco: cortado en pequeños pedazos, decocción con flores de clavel, se utiliza en lavados o baños para personas víctimas del susto, es decir padecimiento de anemia perniciosa; se realizan en la noche antes de acostarse y pueden repetirse varios días seguidos. Estos baños se aplican también para las personas afectadas de maleficios o embrujos - sirve para la confección de pequeñas cruces, que se llevan como escapularios alrededor del cuello, contra maleficios y embrujos. (Girault, L., Kallawaya: Curanderos itinerantes de los Andes. 1987 (as Guilielma Mart.))
  • Guilielma Mart.: El único árbol que produce frutas comestibles, cultivado por los Jívaros es la palma chontacurú (guilielma), llamada uí por los Jívaros. Su fruta, extremadamente alimenticia; madura en febrero y marzo y los indios Jívaros y Canelos la aprecian hasta tal punto que reconocen el inicio del año cuando la fruta de la palma de chontacurú madura. Esta especie de manzana roja no puede se comida cruda y es siempre hervida en agua aunque ciertamente la forma en que más aprecian este alimento es en la bebida fermentada, la cerveza de chontacurú, que preparan con este fruto. (Karsten, R., La vida y la cultura de los Shuar. Tomo I. 1988 (as Guilielma Mart.))
  • Guilielma Mart.: Formerly the wood of Astrocaryum, Bactris, and Guilielma, were used for making bows and arrows, now rare among the acculturated Chocó. (Duke, J.A., Ethnobotanical observations on the Chocó Indians. 1970 (as Guilielma Mart.))
  • Guilielma Mart.: The windowless wall is built of stout chonta palm ( Guilielma sp.) staves set vertically into the ground about an inch to permit light and air to enter, (...). (Harner, M. J., The Jívaro. People of the Sacred Waterfalls. 1984 (as Guilielma Mart.))

Bibliography

A. J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae