Socratea H.Karst., Linnaea 28: 263 (1857)

Primary tabs

http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_192762_1.jpg

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
French Guianapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Guyanapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Nicaraguapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Surinamepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Five accepted species: one, Socratea exorrhiza, is very widely distributed from Nicaragua and Costa Rica southward to Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, Brazil and Bolivia; the other four are much more restricted in the Andes or adjacent lowland areas. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Discussion

  • Wessels Boer (1965) and MacBride (1960) included Socratea in Iriartea; however, there is a whole suite of characters separating the two (see Iriartea). Furthermore, floral biology is significantly different in the two genera (as confirmed by Henderson 1985). The separation of Metasocratea was based on a misinterpretation of the position of the embryo (see Bernal 1986). There is an expansion of the floral apex into a large truncate area opposite each sepal during stamen initiation. This pattern appears characteristic of the tribe. Pintaud and Millan (2004) describe a population of Socratea salazarii displaying flagelliform inflorescences that root at their tips. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Diagnosis

  • Moderate solitary (very rarely clustered) pinnate-leaved tree palms ofhumid rain forest in Central and South America, the stems with an opencone of stilt roots; leaflets are rhomboid praemorse, sometimeslongitudinally divided to give the whole leaf an ostrich-featherappearance; fruit has apical stigmatic remains and embryo. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Occurring in lowland and montane tropical rain forest; pollination, where known, is by beetles (Henderson 1985). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Common Name

  • Stilt palms. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Etymology

  • Commemorates the great Athenian philosopher Socrates (ca. 470–399 BC). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Uses

  • The outer layers of the trunk are extremely hard and durable and are used, split, in the construction of houses and corrals. Wallace (1853) records the use of the spiny roots as cassava graters. Older palms may be cut to make bows (Balick 1985). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Description

  • Solitary or very rarely clustered, moderate, pleonanthic, monoecioustree palms. Stems erect, conspicuously ringed with leaf scars, bearingan open cone of stout, usually densely prickly, stilt roots. Leaves ratherfew, pinnate, neatly abcising; sheaths tubular forming a well-definedcrownshaft; petiole short, adaxially channelled or flattened, abaxiallyrounded, bearing a variety of indumentum types; rachis adaxiallyangled, abaxially rounded; leaflets regularly arranged, asymmetricallydeltoid to elliptic, proximal margin entire for much of its length, distalmargin entire ca. 1/3 its length, otherwise praemorse, main ribsnumerous, radiating from the base, leaflet remaining entire or splittinglongitudinally between the ribs into narrow segments displayed indifferent planes giving the leaf a plumose appearance. Inflorescences solitary, infrafoliar, somewhat dorsiventrally compressed and erect inbud, branching to 1 order, branches pendulous when exposed,protogynous; peduncle well developed, elliptic in cross-section,winged at base; prophyll inserted near the base, short, tubular, 2-keeled, apically open, thinly coriaceous; peduncular bracts ca. 5,tubular, tips pointed, central ones larger than proximal or distal, ±flattened, eventually deciduous after anthesis; rachis ± flattened,shorter or longer than the peduncle, bearing spirally arranged,pendulous rachillae, each subtended by a minute collar-like bract;rachillae rather robust, often somewhat flattened, elongate, bearingspirally arranged, crowded triads; rachilla bracts and bracteoles scarcelyevident; staminate and pistillate flowers maturing at the same time.Staminate flowers open in bud, sepals 3, triangular, united basally in alow, complete or partially interrupted ring; petals 3, distinct, fleshy, markedly asymmetrical, lightly imbricate basally, much longer than the sepals; stamens 17–145, filaments very short, awl-shaped above expanded bases, anthers erect, basifixed, linear, acute or apiculate, latrorse; pistillode much shorter than the stamens, conical, briefly trifid. Pollen ellipsoidal, ± bi-symmetric; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine intectate, upper surface of foot layer covered by fine, dense gemmae or clavae, loosely supporting short, wide-spaced, broad-based spines; longest axis 43–50 µm [2/5]. Pistillate flowers symmetrical, much smaller than the staminate, ± 3-angled; sepals 3, rounded, strongly imbricate, dorsally thickened; petals 3, distinct, strongly imbricate, ± rounded with a minute, triangular valvate apex; staminodes 6, minute, tooth-like; gynoecium obovoid, tricarpellate, triovulate, stigmas 3, apical, fleshy, reflexed, ovules basally attached, orthotropous, one usually larger than the others. Fruit separated at maturity, ellipsoidal to subglobose with eccentrically apical stigmatic remains; epicarp minutely roughened when dry, at maturity splitting into ± distinct valves at apex, exposing the rather dry white mesocarp with included reddish sclerosomes and slender fibres, endocarp thin. Seed ± ovoid, basally attached, hilum circular, raphe branches conspicuous, numerous, sparsely anastomosing, endosperm homogeneous; embryo eccentrically apical. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid with praemorse tips. Cytology: 2n = 36. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Anatomy

  • Leaf (Tomlinson 1961, Roth 1990), root (Tomlinson 1961, Seubert 1998a, 1998b, Avalos 2004), gynoecium (Uhl and Moore 1971), floral development (Uhl and Moore 1980), seed (Roth 1990). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Fossil record

  • From Mexico (State of Chiapas), Upper Oligocene–Lower Miocene, two staminate flowers in amber are described as Socratea brownii (Poinar 2002a). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Relationships

  • The monophyly of Socratea has not been tested. For relationships, see Iriartella. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Taxonomic accounts

  • Henderson (1990). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Use Record

  • Socratea H.Karst.: Comercializado en mercados locales.Tronco (lanza de 15cm). Artesanal. (Alarcon, R., El taller "Etnobotánica y valoración económica de los recursos florísticos silvestres". 1994)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsOtherStemIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Construction. (…). Floors are made of split-trunk slats (or hand-sawn boards) taken from a variety of palms, depending upon elevation. In the higher elevation gualte (Geonoma) is preferred, while in the lower elevations barrigonas (Catoblastus, Wettinia, Socratea, and Bactris) are common. (Orejuela, J.E., Traditional productive systems of the Awa (Cuaiquer) indians of soutwestern Colombia and neighboring Ecuador. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousAwáColombia
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Crop in garden of household. (Salick, J., Ecological basis of Amuesha agriculture, Peruvian upper Amazon. 1989)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousYaneshaPeru
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Edible palm heart. Stem use for construction. (Báez, S., and Å. Backevall, Dictionary of plants used by the Shuar of Makuma and Mutints. 1998)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFood additivesPalm heartIndigenousShuarEcuador
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Socratea H.Karst.: La palma es utilizada para fabricar cerbatanas, dardos, extractores de veneno. (Cayón, E., and S. Aristizábal, Lista de plantas utilizadas por los indígenas Chami de Risaralda. 1980)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingNot specifiedIndigenousEmberáColombia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryPoisoningsNot specifiedIndigenousEmberáColombia
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Palma cuyas hojas se utilizan para techar. (...). Madera construcción. (...). Construcción. Hojas. (Garzón, N.C., Aproximación etnobotánica en la comunidad Guayabero de Barrancion-Guaviare. 1985)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionThatchEntire leafIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
    ConstructionHousesStemIndigenousGuayaberoColombia
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Para el piso (lasicco), en cambio, generalmente se hace de tiras (dojofina) de chonta ( bo´mbo), Guilielma insignis; ( Iriartea sp.) o anacco (Socratea sp.). (…). (…). Además un rallador ( tssatssa´vo), que hecho de un trozo de raíz de una especie de palma (Socratea sp.). (Einzmann, H., Artesanía indígena del Ecuador: los Cofanes. 1988)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticRootIndigenousCofánEcuador
    ConstructionHousesNot specifiedIndigenousCofánEcuador
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Para matar las cucharachas. Se esparce las hojas por toda la casa. Las cucarachas mueren inmediatamente. (Alarcón, R., Etnobotánica de los Quichuas de la Amazonia ecuatoriana. 1988)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalPest controlEntire leafIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Se come el cogollo. (Mundo Shuar, Las plantas. 1977)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousShuarEcuador
    Human FoodFoodPalm heartIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Socratea H.Karst.: Trunks. (Padoch, C., and W. De Jong, Production and profit in agroforestry: an example from the Peruvian Amazon. 1989)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    ConstructionHousesStemMestizoN/APeru

Bibliography

A. J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae