Desmoncus Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 84 (1824)

Primary tabs

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Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Belizepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Boliviapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil Northeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil Southeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Brazil West-Centralpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Colombiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Costa Ricapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Ecuadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
El Salvadorpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
French Guianapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Guatemalapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Guyanapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Honduraspresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Mexico Southeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Nicaraguapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Perupresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Surinamepresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Trinidad-Tobagopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Windward Is.present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Sixty-one species have been described but there are probably far fewer. Henderson et al. (1995) accept only seven species. Desmoncus is distributed from Mexico southwards to Brazil and Bolivia, and is absent from the West Indies except for Trinidad. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Discussion

  • The genus represents the New World counterpart of the Asiatic and African calamoid rattans. The parallel development of grapnel acanthophylls on the cirrus of Desmoncus and of the calamoid genera Eremospatha, Oncocalamus and Laccosperma is a remarkable parallel development. Floral biology has been studied by Listabarth (1994).
    (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Diagnosis

  • Clustering spiny climbing palms of Central and South America, with reflexed acanthophylls borne on a whip at the end of the leaf. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Biology And Ecology

  • Most species are palms of the lowlands, often found in open areas, swamps, on riverbanks, and more rarely in the undergrowth of tropical rain forest. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Common Name

  • For common names, see Glassman 1972. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Etymology

  • Desmos — band, ogkos — hook, referring to the acanthophylls at the leaf tip. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Uses

  • Locally, Desmoncus species may provide cane for cordage or rarely for inexpensive furniture; they are not, however, utilised to the same extent as the Asiatic rattans. See also Hübschmann et al. 2007. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Description

  • Distinguished from the other varieties by having leaves with 10-11 leaflets per side (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)C
  • Slender, clustering (?always), spiny, pleonanthic, monoecious climbing palms. Stem covered with leaf sheaths, eventually becoming bare, with long internodes and conspicuous nodal scars, the first stem slender, not usually reaching a great height before being replaced by more robust sucker shoots (?always). Leaves pinnate, marcescent; sheath tubular, tightly sheathing, elongate, often tomentose and densely armed with spines in the distal exposed areas or glabrous and/or unarmed; ocrea well developed, armed or unarmed like the sheath, entire or disintegrating into a fibrous network; petiole very short to elongate, adaxially channelled, abaxially angled, usually with reflexed, bulbous-based spines; rachis elongate, usually curved, usually armed with swollen-based, reflexed spines, apically extended into a long cirrus armed with spines and pairs of small to robust, reflexed acanthophylls, acanthophylls absent on juvenile leaves, very rarely absent on adults; leaflets usually ovate, acuminate, often much narrowed at the base into a brief stalk, rather distant, ± regularly arranged or grouped, thin to coriaceous, with a conspicuous midrib and several more slender lateral veins, in Desmoncus cirrhiferus the main rib extended into a long flexuous tendril, margins smooth or armed with short spines, the main rib sometimes bearing spines, indumentum sometimes present in bands and along veins, transverse veinlets sometimes conspicuous. Inflorescences interfoliar, emerging through the leaf sheath mouths, branching to 1 order, becoming ± pendulous, apparently protandrous; peduncle elongate, slender, semicircular in cross-section; prophyll inserted some distance above the base of the peduncle, thinly coriaceous, 2-keeled, tubular, splitting longitudinally on the abaxial face and tattering, only partially exserted, persistent; peduncular bract 1, longer than and inserted far above the prophyll, thick, coriaceous to subwoody, tubular, enclosing the rachillae in bud, later splitting longitudinally, ± persistent, variously unarmed or spiny, adaxially smooth, often pale cream at anthesis, tomentose or ± glabrous abaxially; rachis shorter than the peduncle, bearing few to numerous, ± spirally arranged, flexuous, slender, short to elongate, often somewhat zig-zag rachillae, each subtended by a minute, triangular bract; rachillae very few to numerous, bearing rather distant, spiral, or subdistichous triads except in the distal ca. 1/3–1/5 where bearing paired or solitary staminate flowers, each flower group subtended by an inconspicuous triangular bract; bracteoles minute. Staminate flowers somewhat asymmetrical; calyx cupular, short, ± membranous with 3, low or acuminate, triangular lobes; petals 3, distinct, ± fleshy, ovate-lanceolate, much exceeding the calyx, acute or acuminate; stamens 6–9, filaments irregularly adnate to the petals, the free portion very short or moderate, very slender at the tip, anthers ± rectangular, basifixed, sagittate at the base, latrorse; pistillode minute, conical, or absent. Pollen ellipsoidal, usually with slight asymmetry; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, finely perforate, perforate and micro-channelled, and rugulate, aperture margin may be slightly finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis 19–41 µm [5/12]. Pistillate flowers ± globular or ovoid, usually smaller than or equalling the staminate; calyx cupular or tubular, sometimes ± flattened, ± membranous, very briefly trilobed; corolla much exceeding the calyx, tubular, ± membranous, shallowly trilobed or truncate, sometimes minutely ciliate along the margins; staminodes 6, minute, tooth-like, epipetalous; gynoecium ovoid or columnar, trilocular, triovulate, only slightly exceeding the corolla, stigmas 3, fleshy, reflexed, ovule laterally attached, ?orthotropous. Fruit 1-seeded, ± ovoid or spherical, bright red, deep purple, or black, with apical stigmatic remains; epicarp smooth, mesocarp thin, fleshy, endocarp stony with 3 pores slightly distal to the equator. Seed ovoid, with 3 surface hollows, basally attached, hilum basal, circular, raphe branches densely anastomosing, endosperm homogeneous; embryo lateral. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid with rather broad, acute segments or pinnate (2 pairs of leaflets in D. costaricensis). Cytology: 2n = 30. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Anatomy

  • Leaf (Tomlinson 1961), stem (Fisher and French 1976, Tomlinson and Zimmermann 2003), and root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Fossil record

  • No generic records found. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Relationships

  • The monophyly of Desmoncus has not been tested. For relationships, see Acrocomia. (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Taxonomic accounts

  • Taxonomy of this genus is in disarray. A critical revision is greatly needed. In the interim, see Henderson et al. (1995). (J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008)A

Use Record

  • Desmoncus Mart.: Alimento. Cultural. Cultivada. (Flores Paitán, S., Old managed Fallows at Brillo Nuevo. 1987)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    CulturalOtherNot specifiedColonoN/APeru
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantColonoN/APeru
    Human FoodFoodNot specifiedColonoN/APeru
  • Desmoncus Mart.: Cashavara. Desmoncus sp. Arecaceae. Respaldos y asientos de muebles finos de madera. (Vásquez, J. B., La manufactura de muebles a partir de productos forestales no maderables en Iquitos-Peru. 2000)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticNot specifiedMestizoN/APeru
  • Desmoncus Mart.: Coaiqueres. Stems used for weaving basquets. Raw fruits edible. (Barfod, A., and H. Balslev, The use of palms by the Cayapas and Coaiqueres on the Coastal plain of Ecuador. 1988)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticStemIndigenousAwáEcuador
  • Desmoncus Mart.: Es supai chunda o urpi chunda en quichua, la corteza se utiliza para curar tumores. (Ponce, M., Etnobotánica de palmas de Jatun Sacha. 1992)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Medicinal and VeterinaryOtherStemIndigenousQuichuaEcuador
  • Desmoncus Mart.: Especie cultivada en la huerta casera y en las chagras awá. Medicinal. (González, M.S., Flora utilizada por los Awa de Albi con énfasis en especies medicinales-estudio de Botánica Económica-. 1994)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousAwáColombia
    Medicinal and VeterinaryNot specified at allNot specifiedIndigenousAwáColombia
  • Desmoncus Mart.: Planta para uso doméstico. (Ortiz, R., Uso, conocimiento y manejo de lagunos recursos naturales en el mundo Yucuna (Mirití-Paraná, Amazonas, Colombia).. 1994)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticFruitsIndigenousYucunaColombia
  • Desmoncus Mart.: Ripe fruits of Jessenia bataua, dark purple and soft to the touch, are collected and placed in a thin caudron. (…). The fruits are simmered in warm (but not hot) water for approximately ten minutes. (…). A woven basket constructed from Ischnosiphon (Maranthaceae) fiber with a frame of Desmoncus (Palmae) is used to strain out the many remainig pieces of epicarp and inedible, fiber-covered seed. (Balick, M.J., Systematics and economic botany of the Oenocarpus-Jessenia (Palmae) complex. 1986)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticNot specifiedIndigenousCubeoColombia
  • Desmoncus Mart.: Se emplean para amarrar y son incorruptibles, para lo cual las sumergen largo tiempo en el agua o las hienden a machete. (Pérez-Arbeláez, E., Plantas útiles de Colombia. 1956)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsRopeNot specifiedNot identifiedN/AColombia
  • Desmoncus Mart.: Stem used to weave baskets. (…). Fresh fruits edible (Bactris sp., Phytelephas microcarpa, Ammandra sp., Palandra aequatorialis, Aiphanes caryotaefolia, Aiphanes eggersii, Astrocaryum murumuru, Astrocaryum chambira, Astrocaryum standleyanum, Desmoncus sp., Geonoma sp.). (…). (Balslev, H., and A. Barfod, Ecuadorean palms- an overview. 1987)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsIndigenousAwáEcuador
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticStemIndigenousAwáEcuador
  • Desmoncus Mart.: Stems are collected by country people, on demand from the manufacturer in the city. The plant is cut at ground level and the sheathing leaf bases are stripped away. The stem is then rolled up (Fig. 2) and taken to the city. Stems are used either in private houses, where cottage industries manufacture furniture or baskets, or in small factories or workshops where artisans make furniture. The most common use in Iquitos for the Desmoncus trips is for weaving ( Fig. 3), using a wooden frame, into chair backs and seats, headboards of beds, cabinet doors,and especially piano stools ( Fig. ). These items are sold locally, but demand is generally low. There is, however, a demand from tourists for these attractive woven articles. (Henderson, A., and F. Chávez, Desmoncus as a useful palm in the western Amazon basin. 1993)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticStemMestizoN/APeru
  • Desmoncus Mart.: Used to lash leaves together for hauling. Present in young fallows. (Denevan, W., and J.M. Treacy, Young managed Fallows at Brillo Nuevo. 1987)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    EnvironmentalAgroforestryEntire plantIndigenousBoraPeru
    Utensils and ToolsHunting and fishingNot specifiedIndigenousBoraPeru
  • Desmoncus Mart.: Uso artesanal. Changuinas. (Santín Luna, F., Ethnobotany of the Communities of the upper Rio Nangaritza.. 2004)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Utensils and ToolsDomesticNot specifiedIndigenousShuarEcuador
  • Desmoncus pumilus Trail: La corteza del tallo se utiliza para hacer amarres en la construcción de casas, y también para tejer balay, canastos y otros artículos relacionados. (Galeano, G., Las palmas de la región de Araracuara. 1992 (as Desmoncus pumilus Trail))
  • Desmoncus pumilus Trail: Se utiliza para hacer canastos. (Kronik, J. et al., Fééjahisuu. Palmas de los Nietos de la Tierra y Montaña Verde del Centro. 1999 (as Desmoncus pumilus Trail))

Bibliography

A. J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
B. World Checklist of Arecaceae
C. Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador