no image available

Bibliography

Synonymy

    http://media.e-taxonomy.eu/palmae/photos/palm_tc_29500_3.jpg

    Distribution

    Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
    New Guineapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A

    Bibliography

    Synonymy

      no image available

      Distribution

      Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
      Colombiapresent

      Bibliography

      Synonymy

        no image available

        Distribution

        Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
        Borneopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
        Known only from Pasir Jangka and Sempadi Forest Reserves in the extreme west of 1st Division. Endemic. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sarawak. 1992)B

        Discussion

        • C. crassifolius is found at low altitudes in forest transitional between kerangas and mixed dipterocarp forest. It is easily distinguished by the single pair of leaflets of thick texture and the presence of a flagellum. It might be confused with C. flabellatus but the latter generally has very thin matt leaflets, joined for much of their length rather than only at the base, and the inflorescence with its long flagellum is quite different. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sarawak. 1992)B

        Uses

        Description

        • Slender clustering rattan climbing to 10 m; stem without sheaths c. 7 - 10 mm diam., with sheaths c. 10 - 18 mm diam., internodes 7-12 cm long. Sheath mid green, armed with short scattered or grouped triangular spines to 3 mm with conspicuous swollen bases and scattered brown scales between the spines; knee conspicuous; ocrea soon tattering, inconspicuous. Flagellum to 1.5 m. Leaf ecirrate, to c. 75 cm including the petiole and leaflets; petiole 4 - 11 cm, very sparsely armed; rachis very short; leaflets one on each side of the rachis, broad, to c. 60 x 12 cm, stiff, cucullate, very thick in texture, dark shiny green when fresh, transverse ve inlets very numerous, close, conspicuous. Inflorescence, only the young female known, with 3 partial inflorescences and lacking a terminal flagellum; bracts closely tubular, covered in pale brown indumentum; rachillae c. 20 x 2 mm bearing roughened bracts. Fruit not known (Fig. 71). (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sarawak. 1992)B

        Synonymy

          no image available

          Distribution

          Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
          Malayapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
          Thailandpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A

          Discussion

          Description

          • Solitary rattan with stem to 12 m tall, without sheaths about 1 cm in diameter, with sheaths to about 2 cm, with internodes about 10 cm in length. Sheaths rather densely armed with dark brown spines of varying length, reflexed or horizontal the longest to 5 cm long by 5 mm wide; spines around leaf sheath mouth erect, very large, to 10 cm long. Knee prominent. Ocrea inconspicuous. Flagellum to about ? 2 m long. Leaf ecirrate to 2 m long with petiole to 25 cm long, petiole and rachis densely furfuraceous and armed with scattered lateral spines. Leaflets about 50 on each side of the rachis, regular and close the largest to 28 cm by 1.6 wide; the upper surface with scattered bristles on 3 nerves, the lower surface very densely armed with minute bristles. Inflorescence, only male known; to about 2 m long with about 6 partial inflorescences, the longest to 20 cm with all bracts rather densely armed except for those subtending rachillae. Fruit unknown. Seedling unknown. (J. Dransfield, A Manual of the rattans of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Forest Recirds 29.. 1979)C

          Synonymy

            no image available

            Distribution

            Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
            New Guineapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
            Known only from the Palmer R., in the basin of the Fly R. A sterile collection from the Kikori basin may also belong to this species. (J. Dransfield & W.J. Baker, An Account of the Papuasian Species of Calamus (Arecaceae) with Paired Fruit. 2003)D

            Discussion

            • This species is clearly related to C. macrochlamys but differs in the distinctive ocrea armature and the crowded erect rachillae. As yet, it is known only from pistillate material. It is easily distinguished by its ecirrate leaves with strongly grouped leaflets, densely armed sheaths and coriaceous persistent ocrea; the pistillate rachillae are crowded on each partial inflorescence and are held distinctively erect. Pistillate flowers are borne in triads of two pistillates and a sterile staminate and quadrads of two pistillates and two sterile staminates and, very rarely, three pistillates. The species is known from one collection only. Baker 1105, collected near Morere Village, 40 km NE of Kikori (AAU, BRI, K, L, LAE, NY), has an ocrea of a similar form to that of C. altiscandens and has similar armature and the leaflets are similarly grouped. However, the armature of the sheaths differs in the presence of large laminar reflexed spines to 4- 5 x 0.5 cm as well as spines similar to those on the sheaths of C. altiscandens. Unfortunately the collection is sterile. (J. Dransfield & W.J. Baker, An Account of the Papuasian Species of Calamus (Arecaceae) with Paired Fruit. 2003)D

            Biology And Ecology

            Description

            • Moderately robust rattan climbing to the forest canopy (not known whether solitary or clustering). Stem with sheaths 28 - 35 mm diam., without sheaths to 16 mm diam.; internodes c. 15 cm long. Leaf ecirrate to 1.4 - 1.6 m long including petiole; sheath drying pale greenish brown, with caducous dark brown indument; spines very dense, mostly evenly distributed, occasionally joined basally into short horizontal groups, golden, 5 - 18 x 1 -4 mm, distally very slender, soft and laminar, the base much swollen and rigid, persistent, the rest of the spine frequently breaking off just above the swollen base; knee not very conspicuous, armed as the sheath; ocrea 18 x 4.5 cm, coriaceous, tubular, somewhat bilobed and split opposite the petiole, persistent, very densely armed with smaller and more slender spines than the sheaths, the spines frequently in short horizontal groups; flagellum present, at least 3 m long; petiole to 23 cm long, 12 mm wide, 6 mm thick at the base, adaxially flattened or slightly convex, abaxially rounded, with sparse caducous pale brown indument, and on all surfaces with abundant rigid persistent spines 2 - 6 mm long, with swollen bases; rachis to 140 cm long, armed with solitary or grouped recurved hooks abaxially, glabrous or with sparse pale brown caducous indument; leaflets 17 - 19 on each side of rachis, lanceolate, concolorous, arranged in distant groups of twos or threes or singly, basal leaflets to 44 x 4 cm, longest leaflet in mid-leaf 50 x 3.5 cm, apical leaflets 16 - 18 x 1.2 - 1.5 cm, united for about 1/4 their length, leaflets unarmed apart from very small spines along the margins, transverse veinlets conspicuous. Staminate inflorescence not seen. Staminate flowers not seen. Pistillate inflorescence of unknown length, but probably at least 1 m long, probably lacking a flagelliform tip; peduncle, prophyll and peduncular bracts not seen; rachis bracts to at least 30 x 1.5 cm, the longest near the base, with c. 12 cm exposed, proximally tubular, distally split to form an expanded limb to 10 x 4 cm with a triangular tip, the surface with thin caducous indument; primary branches at least 4, strongly recurved, to 21 cm long, 10 - 15 cm apart, with 13 - 18 rather crowded + erect rachillae, subtending bracts unarmed, striate, with triangular tips and somewhat expanded mouths; rachillae in young fruit 5.5 - 12 x 0.35 cm, drying dark brown; rachilla bracts unarmed, striate, 3 mm long with mouth c. 6 mm wide, with scattered dark scales; proximal floral bracteole cup-shaped, c. 2.5 x 2.5 mm, distal floral bracteole cup-shaped, c. 2 x 2 mm, scar from sterile staminate c. 0.3 mm diam. scar of pistillate flower c. 2 mm diam. Pistillate flowers borne in triads of two pistillate and one sterile staminate flowers, or three pistillate flowers, or quadrads of two pistillate and two sterile staminate flowers, not known in bud or anthesis; calyx in young fruit stage 3 x 2 mm with 3 triangular lobes 1.5 x 1.5 mm; petals c. 2.5 x 1 mm; staminodal ring to 0.7 mm high with 6 triangular lobes. Sterile staminate flowers not seen. Fruit (immature) ovoid, 5 x 4 mm with a beak to 0.5 mm, and covered in 17 vertical rows of pale yellowish channelled scales. Seed not yet developed. (J. Dransfield & W.J. Baker, An Account of the Papuasian Species of Calamus (Arecaceae) with Paired Fruit. 2003)D

            Materials Examined

            Synonymy

              • Isotype: New Guinea, Papua New Guinea, Palmer R. Brass 7327(?B†, L)
              • Holotype: New Guinea, Papua New Guinea, Palmer R. Brass 7327(A)
            no image available

            Distribution

            Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
            From 0°52'-11°46'S and 59°00'-77°40'W in the western Amazon region in Colombia (Amazonas), Peru (Amazonas, Cuzco, Huánuco, Loreto, Ucayali), and Brazil (Acre, Amazonas) at 166(100-400) m elevation in lowland rainforest . (Henderson, A., A revision of Desmoncus (Arecaceae) in Phytotaxa 35. 2011)E

            Discussion

            • Taxonomic notes:-Henderson (1995) referred to this taxon as Desmoncus mitis var. Leptospadix (Martius) Henderson, based on D. leptospadix Martius. The type of this is sterile and an epitype is therefore designated.
              Subspecific variation:-Most specimens from Maynas, Loreto, Peru have multiple (2-3) inflorescences at a node. Two specimens (Prance 12310, 12490), both from the same locality in western Acre, Brazil have larger fruits than usual; others from the same area have normal fruits. Most specimens from western Acre have smaller leaves than usual. A few specimens from the western part of the range have spiny peduncular bracts (e.g., Schunke 15629) or spiny sheaths (e.g., Huashikat 2309). Three specimens from Loreto, Peru (Tessmann 5236, Vásquez 8325, 8329) have poorly-developed cirri. One unusual specimen (Simpson 698) from Loreto, possibly a mixed collection, has leaves like those of subsp. mitis and infructescences like those of D. polyacanthos. Another specimen from Loreto (Kvist 1156) appears intermediate between subsp. leptospadix and D. polyacanthos and may be a hybrid. A specimen from Huánuco (Listabarth 1110589) may also be a hybrid. The easternmost specimen (Rabelo 79), from the Rio Urubu near Manaus, is outside the main range of subsp. leptospadix and has completely smooth peduncular bracts and slender rachillae with some adnation. It may belong here; it is not included in the above description but is mapped. (Henderson, A., A revision of Desmoncus (Arecaceae) in Phytotaxa 35. 2011)E

            Description

            Synonymy

            • Desmoncus leptospadix Mart., Voy. Amér. Mér. 7(3): 52 (1844)
            • Atitara leptospadix (Mart.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 727 (1891)
            • Desmoncus mitis var. leptospadix (Mart.) A.J.Hend., Palms Amazon : 228 (1995)
            no image available

            Distribution

            Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
            Malayapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A

            Discussion

            • This species is known from one collection from the foot of G. Janing, Ulu Endau in Johore on hillslopes in hill Dipterocarp forest at 200 m altitude.
              This is a very distinctive species easily recognized by the characters emphasized above. It and C. ulur are the only species of rattan in Malaya that bear vestigial flagella. C. endau-ensis, unlike C. ulur, does not have partial whorls of spines, and the leaflets are much narrower. (J. Dransfield, A Manual of the rattans of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Forest Recirds 29.. 1979)F

            Description

            • Clustering, slender rattan climbing to 25 m tall, forming close clumps. Stem without sheaths 7 mm in diameter, with sheaths 1.5 cm; internodes 10-20 cm long Sheaths dull mid-green, armed rather densely with horizontal flat hairy-margined black spines to 2 cm long by 5 mm wide; brown indumentum scattered between spines. Vestigial flagellum to 8 cm long present Knee prominent. Ocrea rather large, to 2 cm long, densely dark in-dumentose quickly tattering. Leaf cirrate to 1.75 m long including the cirrus to 80 cm; petiole absent; leaflets about 15 on each side of the rachis, grouped in 4 groups of 2-5 leaflets, regularly arranged within the groups; groups subopposite; largest leaflet to about 30 cm long by 2.7 cm wide; upper leaflet surface unarmed, lower surface armed with short brown bristles along midrib, margins armed with black bristles. Male inflorescence to 1 m in length with first bract to 25 cm long armed with scattered and grouped triangular spines to 4 x 3 mm; allbracts tubular at the base, but conspicuously tattering in the upper pan; lowermost partial inflorescence to about 30 cm long all with tattering bracts; rachillae very short, rarely more than 1 cm in length. Fruit not known. Seedling not known. (J. Dransfield, A Manual of the rattans of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Forest Recirds 29.. 1979)F

            Synonymy

              Pages

              Subscribe to PALMweb RSS