no image available

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Philippinespresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B

Synonymy

  • Calamus halconensis Becc., Philipp. J. Sci., C 4: 633 (1909)
no image available

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Sumaterapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B

Synonymy

    no image available

    Distribution

    Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
    Brazil Northpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
    Guyanapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
    Venezuelapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
    From 0°46-6°04'N and 59°50-66°04'W in the Guayana Highland region of Venezuela, Brazil, and Guyana at 1752(810-2700) m elevation in montane rainforest. (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)C

    Discussion

    • There is geographic discontinuity and specimens occur on many, isolated mountains, but there are too few specimens from each mountain to test for differences amongst them.
      There is geographical variation in this subspecies. Linear regression shows there are significant associations between elevation and three leaf and four inflorescence variables. Squared multiple R for the regression of rachis width on elevation is 0.40, basal pinna angle 0.29, apical pinna angle 0.58, prophyll length 0.23, rachilla width 0.23, fruit length 0.49, and fruit diameter 0.45. The rachis becomes thicker, pinna angles narrower, prophylls longer, rachillae thicker, and fruits longer and wider with increasing elevation. (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)C

    Description

    • Leaves veins raised and rectangular in cross-section adaxially; basal pinna 3.8(0.5-27.0) cm wide; apical pinna 6.4(1.5-15.0) cm wide.
      Inflorescences prophyll margins with irregular, spine-like projections; flower pits usually spirally arranged, not distantly spaced. (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)C

    Synonymy

    • Geonoma appuniana Spruce, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 11: 106 (1869)
    • =Geonoma roraimae Dammer, Notizbl. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 6: 261 (1915)
    no image available

    Distribution

    Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
    Borneopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
    Confined to ultrabasic rock in the lowlands. Endemic. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sabah. Sabah Forest Records 13.. 1984)D

    Discussion

    • This variety seems to be one of the consistent elements in the flora of forest on the slopes of ultrabasic hills up to c 500 m altitude. It is abundant on Bukit Silam. The short petiole and absence of reflexed leaflets most easily distinguish it from the type variety, though there are several other distinguishing features. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sabah. Sabah Forest Records 13.. 1984)D

    Description

    • Solitary or clustering rather slender rattan with stems rarely more than 10 m long; stem without sheaths c 6 mm diam., with sheaths to 13 mm diam.; internodes to 10 cm. Sheaths pale yellowish-green, armed with scattered or laterally grouped short bulbous-based triangular black-tipped spines to 3 mm, each usually with an apical tuft of brown hairs, and pale to dark brown scales between the spines; low collars bearing very short spines between larges spines sometimes also present. Knee rather poorly developed. Ocrea low, hairy. Leaf cirrate to 115 cm including the very short petiole to 3 cm and cirrus to 60 cm; leaflets pale yellowish-green 9-11 on each side grouped in pairs in distal part, ± solitary near the base, very narrow, linear, ± pendulous, not reflexed across the stem, the longest to 30 x 1 cm; often narrower, with ± thickened margins; transverse veinlets conspicuous. Male and female inflorescences dissimilar, the male branched to 3 orders with crowded rachillae to 7 x 1.5 mm; female very lax to 75 cm with 4 partial inflorescences and very distant rachillae to 70 x 2 mm. Mature fruit rounded c 12 mm diam., with short beak and covered in 15 vertical rows of reddish-brown scales. Seed rounded c 10 mm diam., deeply pitted; endosperm slightly ruminate. Seedling leaf unknown. (Fig. 47) (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sabah. Sabah Forest Records 13.. 1984)D

    Synonymy

      no image available

      Distribution

      Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
      Borneopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
      Widespread in Temburong District. Elsewhere widespread in Borneo, but never very abundant. Endemic. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam. 1997)E

      Discussion

      • C. laevigatus var. mucronatus is one of the most slender species of rattan in Brunei; it has a very dark colour when fresh, but dries pale green. It is usually found on ridge tops on rather poor soils at altitudes up to 900 m above sea level. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam. 1997)E

      Common Name

      Etymology

      Uses

      Description

      • Very slender solitary rattan climbing to great heights, often over 60 m in length; stem without sheaths c. 4 mm diam., with sheaths to 8 mm diam.; internodes to 13 cm, frequently less in exposed stems. Sheaths dull dark green with very few triangular spines to 3 mm, often with wart-like bases; knee well developed; ocrea to 3 mm fringed with hairs. Leaf cirrate to 90 cm including the cirrus to 45 cm, often the whole leaf to only 30 cm in exposed stems; petiole absent or very short, c. 1 cm; leaflets c. 8 on each side of the rachis, lanceolate and abruptly narrowed at the tip, irregularly arranged in pairs or singly, the basal 1 or 2 reflexed across the stem, the longest to 13 × 2 cm, dark green (drying pale), ± cucullate, transverse veinlets conspicuous. Inflorescences without terminal flagellum, to 45 cm with c. 8 partial inflorescences in all, in detail very similar to that of the type variety but much smaller. Mature fruit ovoid (? always), c. 15 × 10 mm, with a short beak and covered with 14 vertical rows of straw-coloured scales with darker margins. Seed ovoid c. 12 × 8 mm; endosperm deeply ruminate. Seedling leaf bifid. (Fig. 36). (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam. 1997)E

      Materials Examined

      Synonymy

      • Calamus mucronatus Becc., Rec. Bot. Surv. India 2: 213 (1902)
      no image available

      Distribution

      Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
      Borneopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
      Malayapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
      Sumaterapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
      Thailandpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
      Throughout Brunei. Elsewhere throughout Borneo and Peninsular Malaysia, rather rare in Sumatra. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam. 1997)F

      Discussion

      • C. laevigatus var. laevigatus is a very widespread species occurring at altitudes up to 850 m above sea level and on a variety of soils. This is a very variable taxon. Some forms have very narrow leaflets. This species can easily be seen from the Labi Road in Andulau Forest Reserve. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam. 1997)F

      Common Name

      Uses

      Description

      • Solitary (very rarely clustered) moderate high-climbing rattan to 30 m or more; stem without sheaths 8-10 mm diam., with to 20 mm, internodes to 25 cm. Sheaths dull to pale green, drying very pale brownish-green, armed with sparse horizontal ± triangular spines borne on swollen bases, sometimes also with very faint horizontal ridges, sometimes unarmed, and with brown scales abundant on young leaf surfaces; knee conspicuous; ocrea scarcely developed. Leaf cirrate to 1 m, including the cirrus to 65 cm; petiole absent; leaflets c. 20 on each side of the rachis, concolorous, arranged irregularly, the basal up to 8 pairs on each side very close and strongly reflexed across the leaf sheaths forming a chamber in which ants frequently nest; upper leaflets in groups of 2-4 and fanned within the groups, the largest leaflets to c. 20 × 0.5-2 cm, somewhat plicate, drying very pale green. Inflorescences usually about the same length as the leaves, without a terminal flagellum, and with up to 10 partial inflorescences; main bracts rather densely armed with black-tipped, pale, bulbous-based spines and brown indumentum, ultimate bracts and bracteoles with abundant minute spines producing a rough feel. Mature fruit rounded, c. 12 mm diam., with a short beak and covered with 15-19 vertical rows of pale straw- to whitish-coloured scales, sometimes flecked with red. Seed rounded, c. 10 mm diam., deeply pitted; endosperm slightly ruminate. Seedling leaf bifid. (Fig. 35, Pl. 10D). (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Brunei Darussalam. 1997)F

      Materials Examined

      Synonymy

        • =Calamus pallidulus Becc., Fl. Brit. India 6: 457 (1893)
        • =Calamus retrophyllus Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(App.): 123 (1913)
        no image available

        Distribution

        Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
        China South-Centralpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
        Vietnampresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B

        Discussion

        • In the protologue this variety was diagnosed on the basis of the slightly grouped uppermost and lowermost leaflets, the petiole, rachis and sheath with dense brown indumentum and the smaller fruit. One specimen from the protologue, Xu, Y & Zhang, YE Z. 14327, does not fit the diagnosis and we place it in the nominate variety, whilst Chen, S. Y. & Yu, C. 6471 (also cited by Pei et al. 1989) was not seen. Grouped lower leaflets and extensive, dense, dark indumentum are not shown by specimens placed in the nominate variety, but the relevant part of the rachis is seldom preserved in any case. The type specimen of this variety has no fruit and the fruits of two others in the original description are not especially small, so we suggest that this character be disregarded. Although maintained here it seems likely that fuller field observations will show that the two varieties given here are synonymous, their apparent distinctness resulting from individual variation combined with collection of fragmentary material. For example, leaflet grouping is often seen in Calamus species on leaves from near the base of the stem even when the leaflets on upper leaves are regularly arranged (personal observations); it is particularly tempting to collect such unrepresentative leaves on a plant as huge as C. flagellum. Furthermore, indumentum tends to be thickest on young stems and freshly emerged organs, thinning out later. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)G

        Materials Examined

        Synonymy

          • Holotype: China, Yunnan S. Y Chen & S. Q. Tong 18990(HITBC)

        Pages

        Subscribe to PALMweb RSS