no image available

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Malayapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Thailandpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B

Discussion

Description

  • Differs from var. insignis in the larger size of all parts and the remarkable large upward pointing spines on the leaf sheath. Stem without sheaths to 8 mm with to 2 cm. Sheaths dull green rather densely armed with upward pointing spines to 1 cm in length, without bulbous bases. Leaf to 1.2 m long with 5 pairs of dark green leaflets, the terminal pair usually joined along Vi their length; longest leaflet to 45 cm long by 1 cm wide, cucullate, with rather fine lateral veins. (J. Dransfield, A Manual of the rattans of the Malay Peninsula. Malayan Forest Recirds 29.. 1979)A

Synonymy

  • Calamus spathulatus var. robustus Becc., Fl. Brit. India 6: 459 (1893)
no image available

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Borneopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B

Synonymy

    no image available

    Distribution

    Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
    Panamápresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B

    Synonymy

      no image available

      Distribution

      Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
      Nicobar Is.present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B

      Biology And Ecology

      Uses

      Description

      • Solitary, medium diameter rattan. Stem to 20 m long, with sheaths 3.5 cm in diameter, without sheaths upto 2 cm. green when exposed. Leaf 5 m long, cirrate: sheath yellowish green with numerous small spines; spines 0.5 cm long, 3-4 spines grouped together, the groups arranged vertically or horizontally; knee prominent; ocrea not seen; petiole absent; rachis spiny; leaflets alternate, regular, 35 x 6 cm, apical leaflets 40 x 4 cm, drooping.elliptic, usually 5 veined,tips and margins bristly. Inflorescence long flagellate; male inflorescence much branched; rachilla 3 cm long; female inflorescences simply decompound; primary sheaths tightly sheathing, armed with small spines; partial inflorescence to 25 cm long; secondary sheaths to 2 cm long, funnel -shaped; rachillae to 8 cm long, decreasing in length distally; involucrophorum slightly stalked, involucre disc-shaped, fruiting perianth persisting. Fruit oblong, ca. 1.5 x 1 cm, scales in 17 vertical rows, ivory white with brown border, slightly channelled; endosperm not ruminate. (C. Renuka, A Manual of the Rattans of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 1995)C

      Materials Examined

      Synonymy

        no image available

        Distribution

        Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
        Brazil Northeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
        Brazil Southeastpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
        Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia,Espírito Santo, Pernambuco); Atlantic coastal forest, 10-400 m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)D

        Description

        Materials Examined

        • BRAZIL. ALAGOAS:Mun. Riolargo, 1 km N of entrance to Maceio from BR-101, 09°15'S, 35°43'W, 200-400 m, 22 Sep 1994, Noblick 4982(FTG).
          BAHIA: Mun. Urucuca, 7.3 km on Serra Grande-Itacarerd., 14°25'S, 39°01'W, 1-12 Jul 1991, Carvalho et al. 3464 (CEPEC, NY); Mun. Alagoinhas, 65 km N of Salvador,12°10'S, 38°26'W, 22 Nov 1988, Noblick & Soeiro 4685 (CEPEC, BH, F); Mun. Una, 1 km W of city, 15°18'S, 39°04'W, 12 Jan 1989, Noblick 4735 (CEPEC, F, FTG); Mun.Santa Cruz Cabráli a, 16-17 km W of Porto Seguro, 16°23'S, 39°08'W, 20 Jan 1989, Noblick 4753 (CEPEC, F, K); Mun. Nova Vicosa, 22 km SE of Helvécia, 17°53'S, 39°22'W, 1 Feb 1989, Noblick & Britto 4781 (CEPEC, F, K, NY): Mun Ilhéus, W of city, 14°49'S, 39°02'W, 10-40m, 26 Sep 1994, Noblick 4994 (CEPEC, FTG), Noblick 4995 (FTG); Mun.Urucuca, 7.3 km N of Serra Grande on rd. to Itacaré, 14°25'S, 39°01'W, 1-12 JuI1991 , Thomas et al. 8783 (CEPEC, NY); Mun. I1heus, 3 km N of Rodoviaria, 14°46'S, 39°04'W, 23Sep 1994, Thomas et al. 10604 (CEPEC, NY).
          ESPÍRITO SANTO: Conceicão da Barra, 14 Oct 1986, Boudet Fernandes & Boone 2017, 2024 (MBML), 15 Oct 1986. Boudel Fernandes & Boone 2041 (MBML), 26 Mar 1992, Pereira 3153 (MBML), 24 Jun 1992, Pereira 3576 (MBML); Mun.Linhares, Reserva Florestal da CVRD, 19°09'S, 40°03'W, 16 Sep 1987, Boudel Fernandes 2190 (MBML, RB), 18 Sep 1987, Boudel Fernandes 2203 (MBML), 19 Sep 1987, Boudel Fernandes 2211 (MBML), 22 Sep 1987, Boudel Fernandes 2230 (MBML).
          PERNAMBUCO: Escada, Eng Mangueira, 23 Jun 1967, Medeiros-Costa 67-0040 (BH); Timbauaba, 26 Feb 1969, Medeiros-Costa 69-0105 (F); without locality, 1887, Ridley et al. s.n. (BM). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)D

        Synonymy

          • =Bactris mindellii Barb.Rodr., Pl. Jard. Rio de Janeiro 6: 19 (1898)
          no image available

          Distribution

          Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
          From 5°10'N-5°58'S and 46°30-60°11'W in central and eastern Amazon region of Brazil, Suriname, French Guiana, with outliers in Guyana and Brazil at 288(50-700) m elevation in lowland rainforest. (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)F

          Discussion

          • A specimen from French Guiana (de Granville 16838) differs from the others in its narrower pinnae. Another specimen from French Guiana (de Granville 13389) has only four pinnae per side of the rachis. Both these specimens approach subsp. ambigua in their leaf morphology. The geographically isolated specimens (Henderson 649, 664, 1055, 1075, 1163, Moore 9534, Prance 2239) from near Manaus in Brazil have longer rachis, more pinnae, and narrower apical pinnae with narrower angles. However, there are too few specimens to test these differences, and it is not clear if the gap between them and other specimens is an artifact caused by incomplete collecting. (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)F

          Description

          • Leaves regularly pinnate with 3-5-veined pinnae (except for basal and apical ones), not plicate; rachis 77.9(49.5-120.0) cm long; pinnae 18(4-31) per side of rachis; basal pinna 0.7(0.2-2.5) cm wide, forming an angle of 57(34-80)° with the rachis. Inflorescences rachillae 31(9-50). (Henderson, A.J. (2011) A revision of Geonoma. Phytotaxa 17: 1-271.)F

          Synonymy

            • =Geonoma multiflora Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 7 (1823)
            • =Geonoma paraensis Spruce, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 11: 112 (1869)
            • =Geonoma maxima var. maxima
            no image available

            Synonymy

            • Jessenia oligocarpa Griseb. & H.Wendl., Fl. Brit. W. I. : 516 (1864)
            • Oenocarpus oligocarpus (Griseb. & H.Wendl.) Wess.Boer in Fl. Suriname 5: 58 (1965)
            • Jessenia bataua subsp. oligocarpa (Griseb. & H.Wendl.) Balick, Advances Econ. Bot. 3: 126 (1986)

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