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Bibliography

Synonymy

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    Synonymy

    • Geonoma multiflora var. discolor (Spruce) Trail, J. Bot. 15: 130 (1877)
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    Distribution

    Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
    Nicobar Is.present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C

    Biology And Ecology

    Description

    • Solitary, large diameter rattan. Stem to 15 m long, basal part stand erect, rest climbing, with sheaths 5 cm in diameter without sheaths 3 cm in diameter, basal nodes with exposed roots. Leaves 2 m long, cirratejuvenile leaf not cirrate; sheath yellow, armed with spines; spines jet black, in tufts below the knee, arranged on a raised rim in semicircles, mouth of the sheath with longer spines; knee present; ocrea not seen; petiole armed with black spines: rachis with small spines to 0.5 cm long: leaflets c.o. 55 x 3.5 cm, regular, linear lanceolate, 3 veined, veins ciliate on the ventral side, cilia to 0.8 cm long. Inflorescence long flagellate; primary sheath upper part papery; partial inflorescence 50 cm long; secondary sheath upper part papery; splits open; involucrophorum present, involucre cup shaped; fruiting perianth stalked. Fruit ovoid - elliptic, ca. 1.5x1 cm; scales in 15 vertical rows, brown with light brown margin, not channelled in the middle; endosperm not ruminate. (C. Renuka, A Manual of the Rattans of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 1995)B

    Materials Examined

    Synonymy

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      Distribution

      Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
      Cambodiapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
      Thailandpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
      Vietnampresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
      Thailand (all except North-east and West), Laos (Central and probably South) and Vietnam (Cochinchina). Probably also Cambodia (Gagnepain & Conrard 1937) and possibly also in northern Peninsular Thailand (Saw, L. G. pers. comm. 2000). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)D

      Discussion

      • We follow Merrill (1935), Gagnepain & Conrard (1937) and other authors in accepting Beccari's interpretation of Loureiro's sketchy protologue. Sterile material of this species is difficult to separate with any confidence from Calamus flagellum. The vegetative differences noted in the key are often hard to detect on herbarium material. The much more robust rachillae, larger fruit and ruminate endosperm of C. flagellum allow confident identification when available. Our current, limited knowledge suggests that they differ greatly in altitudinal preferences in Indochina but identification cannot be based upon this fact alone. Magalon (1930) reports that this species is found almost throughout Vietnam up to 1000 m. Unfortunately aspects of the description (e.g. the leaflets in groups of 3 - 6 and male rachillae 1.5 - 1.8 cm long) suggest that he is referring to another species. He may be referring to C. rhabdocladus but the cane diameter of up to 50 mm and the petiole armed only on the underside do not really fit. One of Magalon's specimens in P (Magalon 13 undated, from Bana near Danang) is named C. rudentum but is actually a Plectocomia, perhaps P pierreana. Since his description does not fit P pierreana either (sheath spines numerous, black, flexible, laminar, 2 - 8 x 50 mm, no mention of the expanded secondary bracts of Plectocomia) it is best to regard the whole account as an amalgam of more than one species (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)D

      Biology And Ecology

      Conservation

      Common Name

      Uses

      Materials Examined

      • THAILAND (NORTH): Nakawn Sawawn, Me Wong, 25 May 1922, (stam. & fr.), Kerr A. 6016 (K, BK). (CENTRAL): Nakorn Nayok Province, Muang Distr., Nahng Rawng Falls, 16 Sept. 1972, (fr.), Maxwell, J. E 72 - 386 (BK). (EAST): Pakchong, 2Jan. 1924, (fr.), Marcan, A. 1594 (K, BM). (SOUTH- EAST): Chonburi Province, Siricha Distr., Kow Khieo, 5 Jan. 1975, (fr.), Maxwell, J. E 75 - 1 (BK). (PENINSULAR): Trang, undated, (fr.), Vongkaluang, 1. 340, (K). LAOS (CENTRAI,): Vientiane Municipality, Hadxaiphong Distr., Ban Nongpen-Nua, April 1997, (fr.), Renuka RE 104 (FRCL, K). (SOUTH): [Attapeu Province, Sanamxay Distr., Dongbark, 8 April 1992, (ster.), Sounthone ST 12 (FRCL, K)]. VIETNAM (COCHINCHINA): Vung Tau Province, Con Dao, 17June 1989, (fr.), Averyanov, L. & Kudryavtzena, E. 508 (LE, K); lower Cochinchina, Dian-lau-me, undated, (fr.) Pierre 4846 (P). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)D

      Synonymy

      • Palmijuncus rudentum (Lour.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 732 (1891)
      • Rotang rudentum (Lour.) Baill., Hist. Pl. 13: 299 (1895)
        • Neotype: Vietnam, lower Cochinchina, Dian-lau-me Pierre 4846(P)
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      Distribution

      Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
      Borneopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C
      Only known from lower montane forest on Kinabalu; endemic. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sabah. Sabah Forest Records 13.. 1984)E

      Discussion

      • The presence of a vestigial flagellum as well as a cirrus indicates that this species belongs to the group of species related to C. pogonacanthus. The highly tattered inflorescence bracts distinguish it from C. pogonacanthus and the ± unarmed leaflets differentiate it from C. hepbumii. A sterile specimen from Bt. Si lam (JD 5841) may possibly belong to C. mesilauensis. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sabah. Sabah Forest Records 13.. 1984)E

      Uses

      Description

      • Slender clustering rattan climbing to c 10 m; stems without sheaths c 8 mm diam., with to 15 mm diam.; internodes to 20 cm. Sheaths pale green with scattered brown scales and armed with scattered large triangular dark brown spines to 10 x 5 mm with swollen yellowish bases and black hairy margins, and much smaller spines to 3 mm scattered in between or in short groups. Knee conspicuous. Ocrea short, fringed with stiff blackish hairs. Vestigial flagellum present to 5 cm. Leaf to 1.25 m including cirrus to 70 cm and very short petiole to 5 cm; cirrus armed with scattered not grouped spines; leaflets c 10 on each side of the rachis, irregularly arranged in four groups of 2 or 3; longest leaflets to 40 x 3.5 cm, plicate, unarmed except for a few black bristles at the tip. Male and female inflorescences superficially similar, to 50 cm, with a short peduncle to 11 cm; main bracts to 15 cm, dull dirty brown covered in brown scales and scattered spines, deeply split and tattering giving the whole inflorescence a dead appearance; male and female rachillae to c 4 cm. Ripe fruit large, wider than high, to 18 x 23 mm, tipped with a cylindrical beak to 1.5 x 1.5 mm and covered in 24 - 26 vertical rows of deep reddish brown scales; seed ± depressed globose to 12 x 17 mm; endosperm deeply ruminate. Seedling leaf unknown. (Fig. 54) (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sabah. Sabah Forest Records 13.. 1984)E

      Synonymy

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        Distribution

        Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
        New Guineapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)C

        Discussion

        • Although known only from one pistillate and one sterile collection, C. maturbongsii is unlike any other rattan species, possessing striking features in both leaf and inflorescence morphology (Fig. 1). The inflorescence is rather short, lacks a terminal flagellum and bears primary branches that are congested and held almost parallel to the main axis of the inflorescence. When the primary branches expand, the rachis bracts which subtend them are split into tatters. A similar mechanism of inflorescence expansion occurs in two diminutive species from eastern New Guinea, Calamus anomalus Burret and C. essigii W.J. Baker. In these two taxa, the primary branches burst through the subtending bracts, creating a split at the base of each bract, but, unlike C. maturbongsii, the bract remains intact at its apex. Vegetatively, C. maturbongsii has little in common with these species.� There is some resemblance to another Papuasian rattan, C. nannostachys, but in this species the inflorescence bracts, though inflated and split, do not tatter. In overall structure, the inflorescence of C. maturbongsii resembles those of the group of largely short-stemmed or acaulescent Calamus species belonging to Furtado�s section Platyspathus (Furtado 1956) that are restricted to West Malesia, except that the bracts in this group split neatly rather than tatter.� While the similarities described above are noteworthy, the relationships of C. maturbongsii remain uncertain.
          In the majority of pinnate palm leaves, the leaflets near the base of the leaf gradually reduce in size towards the petiole.� In Calamus maturbongsii, the largest leafletsoccur very near the base, with the basal pair almost as large.� This feature together with the very short petiole and almost entirely unarmed leaf sheath must lend the palm a very distinctive appearance. The species is named after our friend and counterpart, Rudi Maturbongs of Universitas Negeri Papua, who has discovered this and many other remarkable new palm species during his field research and has done so much to build collaboration between Papuan botanists and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (W.J. Baker & J. Dransfield, Calamus maturbongsii, an unusual new rattan species from New Guinea. 2002)F

        Diagnosis

        Conservation

        Description

        • Moderately robust, clustering rattan climbing to 30 m. Stem with sheaths 16 – 22 mm diam., without sheaths to 10 – 11 mm diam.; internodes c. 48 cm. Leaf ecirrate, to 1 m long including petiole; sheaths with very thin, white, cobweb-like indumentum, unarmed or armed with very few, scattered, minute, easily detached, triangular spines to 1 mm; knee 13 – 22 × 16 – 21 mm, unarmed, with conspicuous ridge at the base, both ends of ridge somewhat deflexed; ocrea 3 – 5 mm, forming a low collar almost entirely encircling stem, persistent, drying woody, brittle, unarmed; flagellum to 1.7 m, with numerous grapnel spines arranged subregularly to irregularly; petiole 3 – 5 mm long, 6 – 11 × 3 – 6 mm at base, flat adaxially, rounded abaxially, unarmed; rachis with grapnel spines arranged subregularly, abaxial surface with indumentum as sheath, adaxial surface with numerous dark purple-brown scales; leaflets 7 – 12 each side of rachis, arranged regularly, lanceolate with cucullate apices, longest leaflet near leaf base 26 – 36 × 4.5 – 5 cm, the basal pair of leaflets almost as large as longest leaflets, mid-leaf leaflets 24.5 – 26 × 4.3 – 5.5 cm, apical leaflets 5.5 – 12 × 0.7 – 2 cm, apical leaflet pair not united or united to one quarter of their length, leaflets glabrous and unarmed or with exceedingly few bristles on margin or tip, transverse veinlets conspicuous. Staminate inflorescence not seen. Staminate flowers not seen. Pistillate inflorescence 62 – 81 cm long including 33 – 46 cm peduncle and 5 – 14 cm tip lacking primary branches, branched to 2 orders; prophyll 36 × 0.6 – 2 cm, with triangular limb at apex, not splitting, with indumentum as sheath, unarmed, prophyll and other primary bracts strongly overlapping; peduncular bract 1, c. 17.5 × 1.5 cm, similar to prophyll, but splitting to one half of its length, with indumentum as sheath, unarmed; rachis bracts 6 – 16.5 × 0.6 – 2 cm, similar to peduncular bract, but splitting to base and tattering due to emergence of primary branches, sometimes splitting on one side of inflorescence only, otherwise splitting irregularly, with indumentum as sheath, unarmed; primary branches 3 – 7, to 7 cm long, 3 – 6.5 cm apart, only briefly adnate to inflorescence axis above subtending bracts, straight and forming narrowly acute angle with inflorescence axis, rather congested, with up to 17 rachillae, bracts unarmed, primary branch and bracts with indumentum as rachillae; rachillae 3 – 20 × 1 mm, straight and forming acute angle with primary branch; rachilla bracts 1 × 1 mm, subdistichous, with dark indumentum and narrow brown scales; proximal floral bracteole 1 × 0.75 mm, distal floral bracteole 2 × 2 mm, triangular, scar of sterile staminate flower inconspicuous. Pistillate flowers 4.5 × 3.5 mm shortly after anthesis, available material somewhat decayed; calyx 3.5 mm diam., tubular in basal 3 mm, with 3 lobes to 0.75 × 1.5 mm, glabrous; corolla 2.75 mm, with 3 lobes; staminodes 6. Fruit subspherical to broadly ellipsoid, 15 × 12 mm including beak 0.5 mm, with 15 – 17 longitudinal rows of orange, scarcely channelled scales with finely erose margins. Seed (sarcotesta removed) 9 × 8 × 5 mm, globose, compressed, with a deep pit on one side, with a small, rounded appendage at apex; endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal. (W.J. Baker & J. Dransfield, Calamus maturbongsii, an unusual new rattan species from New Guinea. 2002)F

        Materials Examined

        Synonymy

          • Isotype: Indonesia, Papua, Sorong Maturbongs 286(MAN)
          • Holotype: Indonesia, Papua, Sorong Maturbongs 286(K!)
        no image available

        Distribution

        Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
        Central Vietnam in Kon Tum, in primary, broad-leaved, closed, evergreen, wet, mountain forest on steep sandstone slopes at 1100-1200 m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Ban, N.K. & Dung, N.Q., New species of Calamus (Palmae) from Vietnam in Palms (1999+) 52(4). 2008)G

        Discussion

        • The specimen cited here will not key in Evans et al. (2002). Calamus kontumensis is a distinctive species, differing from other Indochinese Calamus in its prophyll inserted high on the peduncle and splitting and tattering partial inflorescence bracts (although in this it is remarkably similar to C. bousigonii Becc. subsp. smitinandii J. Dransf.). By its climbing habit, flagellate sheaths, ecirrate leaves, and swollen, uneven bases of the floral bracteoles ("involucrophores pedicellate" of Beccari), Calamus kontumensis might belong to Beccari's (1908) Group VIII. However, this group is said to have regularly arranged, elongate pinnae, flagellate inflorescences, and ruminate endosperm, none of which are found in C. kontumensis. Nor are its floral bracteole bases nearly as pronounced as those, for example, of C. peregrinus Furtado, a member of Group VIII. Calamus kontumensis is therefore not placed in any of Beccari's groups. (Henderson, A.J., Ban, N.K. & Dung, N.Q., New species of Calamus (Palmae) from Vietnam in Palms (1999+) 52(4). 2008)G

        Description

        • Stem branching not known, climbing, to 3 m tall, 0.8-0.9 cm diameter with sheaths. Leaf sheaths closed and tubular, brown tomentose initially, with scattered, yellowish, black-tipped, flattened spines to 1 cm long, or spines absent; ocreas 0.5 mm long, membranous, not bristly or spiny; knees present; flagella 20-22 cm long, with tattering bracts; petioles 9-10 cm long; rachis 15-23 cm long, with solitary, recurved spines abaxially; cirri absent; pinnae 5-6 per side of rachis, 7-13.5 cm long, 1-3 cm wide at the middle, broadly lanceolate, clustered in remote pairs, the apical pair of pinnae briefly joined at their bases, the veins and margins not bristly except for a few bristles at apices of pinnae. Staminate inflorescences not known; pistillate inflorescences 25-50 cm long, not or only briefly flagellate, branched to 2 orders, with 1-4 partial inflorescences, these inserted well below the mouth of the partial inflorescence bract; prophylls 5-9 cm long, inserted 1.5-6 cm above the base of the peduncle, not spiny or with a few, straight spines, splitting and tattering almost to the bases; partial inflorescence bracts tubular, splitting and tattering almost to the bases, not spiny; rachillae 1-4, 2-7 cm long, zigzag, densely brown tomentose; rachillae bracts 1.5 mm high, acuminate; floral bracteoles cupular, lobed, borne on swollen, uneven bases; pistillate flowers not known; fruits 0.7 cm diameter, globose, prominently rostrate, brown, with the perianth forming a pedicellate base; endosperm homogeneous. (Henderson, A.J., Ban, N.K. & Dung, N.Q., New species of Calamus (Palmae) from Vietnam in Palms (1999+) 52(4). 2008)G

        Materials Examined

        Synonymy

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