no image available

Distribution

Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
Borneopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Locally common in Brunei, tending to occur in forest on poor soils. Elsewhere in Sarawak. Endemic. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Discussion

  • C. hispidulus may be distinguished from other related Bornean species such as C. sarawakensis and C. pilosellus by the rough leaf sheaths. Its closest relative is probably C. exilis of Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. We have included here a rattan previously identified as Calamus sp. aff. C. ciliaris Bl. (Dransfield 1984, 1992). With more material, it seems to fit within the range of variation of C. hispidulus. So far, this very hairy form has not yet been found in Brunei. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Etymology

Uses

Description

  • Solitary (?always) slender rattan climbing to 10 m tall; stem without sheaths 7-8 mm diam, with sheaths to 14 mm diam., internodes c. 10 cm long. Sheaths dull green, very densely covered in minute, rigid brown hairs with swollen bases, the hairs eventually deciduous leaving a rough surface, or with slender greenish almost hair-like spinules, a few short triangular spines to 2 mm long sometimes present scattered among the hairs; knee conspicuous; ocrea inconspicuous. Flagellum to 1.25 m. Leaf ecirrate, to 55 cm long including petiole to c. 15 cm, rough near the base; leaflets 15-20 on each side of the rachis, regularly arranged, ± linear, the longest to 25 × 2 cm, both surfaces bearing minute spinules or, more rarely, pale green hair-like spinules; transverse veinlets conspicuous. Inflorescence 60-125 cm long, curved, with 3-6 much curved partial inflorescences; male rachillae strongly curved, to 25 mm long, bearing distant large flowers; female rachillae much curved, to 45 mm, bearing distant large conspicuously stalked flowers. Mature fruit ellipsoid, 20 × 8 × 10 mm, covered in yellowish-brown scales. Other details not known. (Fig. 42). (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Materials Examined

  • BEL: Melilas, Bt.Batu Patam, Dransfield J. 6599. TEM: Amo, Wong 1737; Amo, Bt.Belalong, Dransfield J. 7124. TUT: Lamunin, Ladan Hills F.R., Wong 507; Rambai, Bt.Bahak, Coode 7028; Rambai, Bt.Bahak, Coode 7059; Rambai, Tasik Merimbun, Wong 341. Without prov.: BRUN 15744. (J. Dransfield & H. Beentje, The Palms of Madagascar. 1995)A

Synonymy

    no image available

    Distribution

    Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
    New Guineapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B

    Synonymy

      no image available

      Distribution

      Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
      Nicobar Is.present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B

      Biology And Ecology

      Uses

      Description

      • Clustering, large diameter rattan. Stem 20 m long or more, with sheaths to 4 cm in diameter, without sheaths 2 cm. Leaf to 6 m long, cirrate; sheath green, distal sheaths covered with white powder, densely armed with spines, spines 2-4 cm long, yellow with a reddish brown tinge, grouped together, arranged horizontally in slightly raised rims; knee present, not seen clearly from a distance because of dense spines,, petiole spiny, spines brownish yellow, grouped together, arranged horizontally in slightly raised rims; rachis stout, armed with 3 rows of spines, spines to 0.3 cm long, black, grouped together in slightly raised rims; leaflets ca. 50 x 2.5 cm, basal and distal ones smaller, veins and margins sparsely ciliate. Inflorescence not flagellate; male inflorescence, primary sheath lacerate, spiny; spines black, 1 cm long; partial inflorescences to 18 cm long; secondary sheath splits open, not spiny; rachilla 4 cm long, flowers in distichous rows; female inflorescence, primary sheath to 2.5 cm long, spiny, splitting open, slightly prolonged at the distal end into a lanceolate point: partial inflorescence to 25 cm Ipng; secondary sheaths splits open, not spiny, 1 cm long, prolonged at the distal end into a lanceolate point; rachilla to 6 cm long, arched; female flower outer side of outer perianth with black spots, both whorls split longitudinally in fruit; involucrophorum sessile. Fruit ovoid, ca. 1 x 0.8 cm, scales in 21 vertical rows, yellowish white with thin brown margin, channelled in the middle; endosperm not ruminate. (C. Renuka, A Manual of the Rattans of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 1995)C

      Materials Examined

      Synonymy

        no image available

        Distribution

        Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
        Borneopresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
        Known only from G Dulit. Endemic. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sarawak. 1992)D

        Discussion

        Description

        • Slender montane rattan, similar in all respects to C. divaricatus var. divaricatus but differing in the much smaller leaf, not exceeding 25 cm long, bearing regular, lanceolate close leaflets, not at all divaricate, to 15 x 2 cm. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sarawak. 1992)D

        Synonymy

          no image available

          Distribution

          Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/hosted_sites/tdwg/geogrphy.html)
          Assampresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
          Bangladeshpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
          China South-Centralpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
          East Himalayapresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
          Myanmarpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
          Thailandpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
          Tibetpresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
          Vietnampresent (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
          India (North-east), Myanmar, China (South and South-east Yunnan), Thailand (North), Laos (North) and Vietnam (northern part). Also Bangladesh (Basu 1992). See also following variety. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)E

          Discussion

          • Beccari (1908) tentatively described the variety karinensis on the basis of a single specimen, stating that with further material it may prove to be either synonymous with the typical form or a full species. Pei et al. (1989) raised karinensis to species rank on the basis of five specimens from Yunnan, although unfortunately they had not had access to the types (Chen Sanyang, pers. comm. 1999). Although C. karinensis was considered a 'sp. nov.' by the authors it is probably better treated as a 'stat. nov.' since they clearly intended to refer to the same taxon as Beccari (1908). The correct type is thus that of the basionym. Table 1 outlines the published diagnostic features of the three taxa. Criterion 1 is clearly not diagnostic even as stated - both forms can show seriate spines. Criteria 3, 4, 5 and 6 are vague and appear impossible to apply in a consistent, objective way. Criteria 3 - 7 apply only to females and 5 - 7 require mature fruit. In the present study extensive material, old and recent, was examined to determine whether the criteria were applicable, whether they could be better phrased or quantified, and whether other criteria might be found. As Beccari suspected, the presence of flattened spines along the rachis of the Fea specimen (Criterion 2) merely indicates a juvenile leaf (cf. e.g Oulathong 200). All the Chinese material bears thick, deflexed spines or claws and in this respect there is no difference between material assigned to the differing forms. It appears that Pei et al. (1989) wished rather to place their emphasis on the fact of these claws being in pairs or threes and not solitary as in the typical form, but this seems to us to be a variable feature of no diagnostic value in the present example. The degree of primary bract laceration and scale channelling were scored by eye and measurements were made of rachilla length and spacing (the latter as an index of whether there were 'more' or 'fewer', since total numbers could not be determined from the fragmentary specimens). These data showed clearly that variation in Criteria 3 - 6 was not correlated between characters and no disjunctions could be found supporting the recognition of two taxa. All fruiting material had a dark intramarginal line of varying width and shade and a fine creamy marginal line (Criterion 7). This included those specimens cited by Pei et al. (1989) as representing C. karinensis and so supposedly 'without a dark [intra]marginal line'. In Fea s.n. the intramarginal line is broad at the scale corners but narrows or even disappears near the midline of the scale. Thus overall the re-assessment found no support for the separation of taxa, and this causes us to synonymise them here. (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)E

          Conservation

          Uses

          Materials Examined

          • Sikkim, Rhinn of Great Rangit, undated, (stam. & pist.), Thompson s.n. E12 (K); Assam? [illeg.], undated, (stam.), Jenkins s.n. E3 (K); Assam or East Bengal, undated, (fr.), Griffith 6386 (K). MYANMAR: Yado Valley, undated, (fr.), Fea s.n. (FI-B). CHINA (SOUTH YUNNAN): Mengla, Yaoquitan, foot of Nangong Mt, undated, (fr.), Chen, S. Y 795 (KUN). (SOUTH-EAST YUNNAN): Jiancheng, Qushuiqu, 7 March 1986, (fr.), Xu, Y 14327 (HITBC). THAILAND (NORTH) Doi Chiang Dao, 5 June 1921, (fr.), Kerr, A. 5615 (K, BK). LAOS (NORTH): Luang Namtha Province, Namtha Distr., near Ban Nam Kong, Nam Va, 2 May 1998, (stam.), Oulathong OL 200 (FRCL, K). VIETNAM (UNKNOWN): North Vietnam, 13Jan. 1961, (stam.), Unknown 1536 (LE). (T. Evans & K. Sengdala & B. Thammavong & O.V. Viengkham & J. Dransfield, A Synopsis of the Rattans (Arecaceae: Calamoideae) of Laos and Neighbouring Parts of Indochina. 2002)E

          Synonymy

            • Isotype: India, Assam Jenkins s.n.(K labelled as s.n. E3)
            • Holotype: India, Assam Jenkins s.n.(location unknown, presumed CAL)
          • =Calamus polygamus Roxb., Fl. Ind. ed. 1832 , 3: 780 (1832)
          • Palmijuncus polygamus (Roxb.) Kuntze, Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 733 (1891)
          • =Calamus jenkinsianus Griff., Palms Brit. E. Ind. : 40 (1850), nom. illeg.
          • =Calamus flagellum var. karinensis Becc., Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 11(1): 129 (1908)
          • Calamus karinensis (Becc.) S.J.Pei & S.Y.Chen, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 27: 133 (1989)
            • Holotype: Myanmar, Yado valley Fea s.n.(FI-B)

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