Bactris tefensis A.J.Hend., Palms Amazon : 220 (1995)

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Rio Tefé region of Brazil (Amazonas), lowland rain forest on terra firme at low elevations.


  • Bactris tefensis is diagnosed by its pistillate corolla, densely covered with flexuous, brown spinules to 2 mm long. These spinules are remarkably like those of Astrocaryum gynacanthum. It appears to be a member of the Piranga clade (Sanders, 1991). It shares non-spinulose fruits with other members of that clade, Bactris glandulosa from Central America and B. timbuiensis from the Atlantic coastal forest of Brazil, but appears closer to B. acanthocarpoides, B. hal-moorei, and B. pliniana.


  • Stems solitary or cespitose, 0.8-1.5 m tall, 1.5-2 cm diam., covered with persistent, decaying leaf bases. Leaves 4-10; leaf spines scattered, black, terete, to 4 cm long, few on sheath and lateral surfaces of petiole, fewer on rachis; sheath 15-20 cm long; ocrea not seen; petiole 0.6-1 m long; rachis 40-76 cm long; pinnae 9-13 per side, irregularly arranged in clusters of 2-3, spreading in different planes, sigmoid, light green; middle pinnae 22-31 x 4.5-6 cm. Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle to 10 cm long, recurved, densely spinulose; prophyll not seen; peduncular bract 18-20 cm long, moderately covered with soft, brownish spines to 1 cm long; rachis to 3 cm long, densely spinulose; rachillae numerous, filamentous, crowded on rachis, to 3 cm long, at anthesis densely spinulose; triads more or less regularly arranged (but often with solitary staminate flowers interspersed) on proximal ca. half or more of rachillae, and there tending to be absent from adaxial side of rachillae (paired or solitary staminate flowers only on distal ca. half of rachillae); staminate flowers not seen; pistillate flowers to 4 mm long; calyx cupular, 1 mm long, with a few, flexuous, brown spinules to 2 mm long; corolla tubular, 3 mm long, densely covered with flexuous, brown spinules to 3 mm long; staminodes 6, small, or absent; fruits ca. 1 cm diam., broadly obovoid, shortly rostrate, orange-red; mesocarp starchy; endocarp turbinate, the sterile pores slightly displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers few or absent; fruiting perianth with lobed calyx and longer, densely spinulose corolla, without staminodial ring.