Livistona alfredii F.Muell., Victorian Naturalist 9: 112 (1892)

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Western Australia. In the Hamersley Region mainly in the upper reaches of the Fortescue, Robe and Ashburton Rivers. A small disjunct and apparently senescent population occurs in the Cape Ra., North West Cape Peninsula, on the western side of Exmouth Gulf (Humphreys et al., 1990). (Dowe, J.L.: A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A


  • Grows adjacent to watercourses and along drainage lines in well-drained sites, 50-560 m alt. Flowers Sep-Jan; fruits Dec- May. (Dowe, J.L.: A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A


  • Specimens relating to L. alfredii were first cited by Mueller (1878) as part of the distribution of L. mariae. The protologue of L. alfredii (Mueller, 1892) was an informal account in Victorian Naturalist. It included some manner of distinguishing it from L. mariae, and discussed leaf colour and fruit size. Mueller named it in honour of Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh. The type, Forrest s.n. is mentioned in the account of L. mariae. Drude (1893) found L. alfredii distinct enough to place it in its own section, Gregorya. Beccari (1921) similarly provided only a meagre description, but in 1931 provided a complete description based on the Forrest and McRae specimens. Livistona alfredii is the most geographically isolated species of Livistona in Australia. Livistona alfredii is a moderate canopy palm to 12 m tall; leaves are large and regularly segmented; segment apices are rigid, and with a bifurcate cleft to 75% of the segment length; the inflorescence is unbranched, not extending beyond the limit of the crown, and with up to 7 partial inflorescences; bracts are loosely sheathing; flowers are cream to yellow; fruit are globose to 40 mm diam., and dark brown to black at maturity. (Dowe, J.L.: A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A


  • Lower risk, conservation dependent (IUCN, 2006). (Dowe, J.L.: A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Common Name

  • Millstream Palm. (Dowe, J.L.: A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A


  • Functionally dioecious palm. Trunk to 12 m tall, 20-50 cm dbh, leaf scars prominent, internodes narrow, pale grey, petiole stubs persistent in basal 1 m, otherwise deciduous. Leaves 25-30 in a globose crown; petiole 90- 130 cm long, 25-30 mm wide, adaxially flat, margins with curved singleblack spines congested in the proximal portion; leaf-base fibres prominent, coarse, persistent; lamina costapalmate, regularly segmented, subcircularin outline, 90-140 cm long, rigid, adaxially pale green-grey to glaucous, waxy, dull; abaxially light green-grey, waxy; lamina divided for 60-70% of its length, with 50-66 segments, depth of apical cleft 60-75% of the segment length, apical lobes attenuate, rigid; parallel veins 6-8 each side of midrib; transverse veins thinner than parallel veins. Inflorescences unbranched at the base, not sexually dimorphic, 80-270 cm long, not extending beyond the limit of the crown, branched to 3 orders; partial inflorescences 5-7; prophyll not seen; peduncular bracts 1-2, loosely sheathing, sparsely to moderately scaly; rachis bracts loosely sheathing, sparsely to moderately scaly; rachillae to 13 cm long, to 2 mm diameter, white pruinose, papillose. Flowers solitary or in pairs, cylindrical in bud; sepals triangular, 0.8-1 mm long, acute, cream to yellowish; petals triangular, 2-3 mm long, acute to mucronate, cream to yellowish; stamens ca 2 mm long. Fruit globose, 25-40 mm diam., dark brown to black; epicarp with scattered lenticellular pores; suture line extends to ca ½ way to base; pedicel to 3 mm long. Seed globose, 17-20 mm wide. Eophyll 3-ribbed. (Dowe, J.L.: A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A

Materials Examined

  • Specimens examined: AUSTRALIA: Western Australia. Hamersley Ra., Millstream, Jun 1878, Forrest s.n. (MEL holotype); On the Mill-stream, Fortescue R., Forrest 301 (MEL); Hamersley Ra., 19 Feb 1879, Forrest s.n. (MEL); Millstream, Hamersley Ra., Forrest s.n. (MEL); Millstream, Hamersley Ra., 1892, anon. s.n. (MEL); Millstream R., 15 Oct 1915, Thorpe s.n. (K); Longreach, Millstream, Fortescue R., 21 Aug 1932, Gardner s.n. (PERTH); Pilbara, Millstream-Chichester NP, Fortescue R., Crossing Pool, 20º50?S, 116º35?E, Dowe 354 (BRI); Pilbara, Millstream-Chichester NP, Fortescue R., Crossing Pool, 1 km downstream of Dawson Ck junction, Dowe 355 (JCT); Millstream-Chichester NP, 28 Jul 1990, Leyland s.n. (PERTH); Millstream-Chichester NP, Fortescue R., below lookout overlooking Crossing Pool, 21º33'12"S, 116º58'52E, Bromilow LA2, LA5(BRI, PERTH); Millstream Stn, 21º35'S, 117º04'E, 300 m alt, Rodd 2847, 2849 & 2850 (BH, K, NSW, PERTH); Fortescue R., Millstream, Aug 1974, Beauglehole s.n. (PERTH); Fortescue R., Brooker 2064 (PERTH); Fortescue R., Millstream, George 3523 (PERTH); Fortescue R., Crossing Pool near Millstream Homestead, 13 Aug 1974, Willis s.n. (MEL); Millstream R., Brooker 2064 (PERTH); Millstream/Yarraloola Rd crossing the Fortescue R., 21º37?58?S, 117º07?08?E, Bromilow LA1 (BRI, PERTH); Fortescue R., 400 m E of Robe R. iron rail bridge, 21º28'35"S, 116º49'14"E, Bromilow LA6 (BRI, PERTH); ca 32 km W of Mt Brockman Stn, Duck Ck, 3 May 1975, Wark A & B (NSW); Nichol Bay, 1879, McRae s.n. (MEL); Cape Ra., North West Cape, 22º22'092S, 113º54'03"E, 29 Sept. 1988, Waldock s.n. (PERTH). (Dowe, J.L.: A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae))A


    A. Dowe, J.L.: A taxonomic account of Livistona R.Br. (Arecaceae)