Bactris vulgaris Barb.Rodr., Enum. Palm. Nov. , App.: 42 (1879)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Brazil Northeast present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Brazil South present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Brazil Southeast present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Atlantic coastal forest of Brazil (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo),
lowland rain forest on non-flooded soils, 50-100 m elevation.


  • Bactris vulgarly is diagnosed by its whitish tomentose and setose abaxial pinna surface, and purple-black fruits. Synonymy was established by Noblick (1991) and Boudet Fernandes (1995), who also discussed variation in this species.

Common Name

  • . Brazil: airi-mirim, tucum, tucum preto.


  • Stems cespitose and forming clumps, 1-3(-5) m tall, 2-4 cm diam., spiny. Leaves 4-10; leaf spines somewhat clustered, black, terete, spinulose, to 9 cm long, dense on sheath and lateral surfaces of petiole fewer on abaxial surface of rachis; sheath 20-25 cm long, fibrous on the margins; ocrea to 17 cm long; petiole 12-98 cm long; rachis 0.6-1.8 m long; pinnae 21-49 per side, irregularly arranged in clusters spreading in different planes, linear-lanceolate, spinulose along the margins, whitish tomentose and usually setose abaxially; middle pinnae 20-69 x 1.7-4 cm. Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 6-32 cm long, recurved, spiny; prophyll 16-35 cm long; peduncular bract 15-50 cm long, moderately to densely covered with appressed, black or yellowish spines to 1 cm long; rachis 9-22 cm long; rachillae 6-29, 4.5-14 cm long, at anthesis densely covered with moniliform trichomes; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers 5-5.5 mm long; sepal lobes 1.5-2 mm long; petals 5-5.5 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers 3-6 mm long; calyx cupular, 1-2 mm long; corolla tubular, 3-6 mm long, spinulose, tomentose; staminodes minute, digitate, or absent; fruits 1.8-3 cm diam., depressed-globose or obovoid, yellow, becoming purple-black; mesocarp juicy; endocarp turbinate, the pores more or less equally spaced; endocarp fibers numerous, free, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with minute calyx and spinulose, lobed corolla, without staminodial ring.


    A. World Checklist of Arecaceae