Euterpe catinga var. roraimae (Dammer) A.J.Hend. & Galeano, Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 72: 28 (1996)

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Distribution

Known from the Guayana higlands, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A

Venezuela (Amazonas, Bolívar), Guyana, Ecuador (Pastaza), and Brazil (Amazonas); white-sand soi ls in wet or swampy areas in low forest. cloud forest or dwarf forest on tepui summits in the Guayana Highland (or rarely on Andean slopes), at 900-2100 m. In some areas it can form large and dominant stands. The Andean populalion is geographically isolaled and grows on different soils (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson: Flora Neotropica, Monograph 72)B

Discussion

  • Wessels Boer ( 1972, 1988) separated Euterpe roraimae from other species on the strength of its fruits with ruminate endosperm, even though the specimens he examined clearly have homogeneous endosperms. As discussed above, this variety is somewhat problematic. Most specimens from the Guayana Highland are uniform, although there appear to be some local forms, especially in color of inflorescence tomentum. In the western and central Guayana Highland (Neblina, Chimanta, Duida, etc.), the inflorescence tomentum is reddish brown, whereas in the eastern part of the range (Venamo, Roraima) the tomentum is usually brownish white. Fruit color also varies from reddish brown to purple-black. Some specimens lack the leaf scales, and then the leaves are rather glaucous, although it is not clear if these are old leaves from which the scales have fallen. The specimens from the Andes of Ecuador have whitish brown rachillae (like E. catinga var. catinga), although the flowers are reddish. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson: Flora Neotropica, Monograph 72)B

Common Name

  • Venezuela: manaca. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson: Flora Neotropica, Monograph 72)B

Uses

  • The palm heart is occasionally eaten and the fruits made into a drink. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson: Flora Neotropica, Monograph 72)B

Description

  • The variety is recognised by its densely black-scaly petiole (Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador)A
  • Stems solitary, or cespitose with 2-6(-10) ttems forming a clump, 4-15 m tall, 7-15 cm diam.
    Leaves 6-11; sheath 0.3-1 m long including a 1-2(-9) cm ligule, green, yellow-green, bluish green or with a bluish glaucous bloom, near the apex with a dense to moderate covering of large, black or reddish brown, raised, twisted scales, glabrescent; peliole (6-)25-45 cm long, densely covered adaxially with black or reddish brown, raised, ramenta-like scales, abaxially with fewer scales. occasionally glabrous and then somewhat glaucous; rachis 1.6-2.5 m long, densely to moderately covered wilh scales like those of petiole, occasionally glabrous: pinnae 33-47 per side, pendulous or less commonly ± horizonlally spreading, green adaxially, lighter green abaxially; basal pinna 0.5-1 m x 0.3-2 cm; middle pinnae 42-84 x 1.5-4.5 cm; apical pinna 13- 31 x 0.6-2 cm.
    Inflorescences infrafoliar; peduncle 6-14 cm long; prophyll 0.5-1 m long; peduncular bract 46-90 em long; rachis 25-45 cm long; rachillae to 150, 35-75 cm long, 2-4 mm diam. at anthesis, densely covered with short, stiff, branched, 0.1 mm long, reddish brown or lighter brown hairs; fruits 0.8-1.3 cm diam. (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson: Flora Neotropica, Monograph 72)B

Materials Examined

  • VENEZUELA. AMAZONAS: Neblina. 12.5 km NNW of Pico Phelps, 00°54'N, 66°02'W, 1670-1690 m, 12 Feb 1985, Boom & Weitzman 5792 (NY): Neblina Massif, camp 12, 1950 m, 26-27 Feb 1985. Boom et al. 5974 (NY): Neblina Massif, NW Plateau, 00°54'N, 66°04'W, 1820 m, 1 Feb 1984, Henderson 22 (NY): 17 Pcb 1984, Henderson 32 (NY); Neblina Massif, 2.8 km N from Pico Phelps, 00°49'N, 65°59'W, 2085-2100 m, 16 Feb 1984, Henderson 28 (NY); 16 Feb 1984. Henderson 29 (NY); Serranía de Tapirapeco, Campo Tamacuari, 01°14'N, 64°40'W, 1400 m, 10 Feb 1989, Henderson et al. 1012 (NY): Cerro de la Neblina, 1700-2000 m, 16 Jan 1954, Maguire et al. 37319 (BH, NY); 4 Feb 1985, Nee 30746 (NY): 16-17 Oct 1970, Steyermark 103997 (NY, US): Dept Río Negro, Cerro Aracamuni, 01°26'N, 65°47'W, 1550 m, 18 Oct 1987. Liesner & Delascio 22/20 (NY); Cerro Yapacana, 03°45'N, 66°45'W, 825 m, 4 May 1970, Steyermark & Bunting 103077 (BH, NY); Sierra Parima, 02°27'N, 63°56'W, 1300 m, 18-23 May 1972, Steyermark 106055 (BH, MO, NY): Sierra Parima, 04°05'N, 64°40'W, 1500 m, 19 May 1973, Steyermark 107529 (BH, NY): Dept Atabapo, Cerro Marahuaca, head of Río Iguapo. 03°36'N, 65°23'W, 1560 m, 13-14 Oct 1983, Steyermark 129672 (NY).
    BOLIVAR: Dist. Piar, top of Saito Aicha nr. E base of Uaipan-tepui, 05°38'N, 62°32'W. ca. 1100 m, 27- 28 Nov 1982, Davidse & Huber 22933 (MO); Central and western part of saddle between Camarcaibarai-tepui and Tereké-Yuren- tepui, 05°52'N, 62°01'W, 1800-1900 m, 23 May 1986. Liesner et al. 20997 (NY): Ptarí-tepui, 1600-2000 m, 14- 19Aug 1970, Moore et al. 9715 (BH, US): 4 Nov 1944, Steyermark 59867 (F); Dist. Piar, Macizo del Chimantá, Acopán-tcpui, ca. 05°12'N, 62°05'W, 1950 m, 8-11 Feb 1985, Pipoly et al. 7206 (NY): Chimantá Massif, NW part of summit of Abácapa-tepui, 2000-2125 In, 14 Apr 1953, Steyermark 75011 (MO, NY) Cerro Vcnamo, Río Venamo, 950-1000 m, 10 Jan 1964, Steyermark et al. 92961 (BH, NY); Auyan-tepui, Río Churún, 1660 In, 12 May 1964, Steyermark 93738 (RH, NY); Meseta de Jáua. Cerro Jáua, 04°45'N, 64°26'W, 1922- 2100 m, 22-27 Mar 1967, Steyermark 98061 (BH, US); Río Anawaray-parú, 134 km S of EI Dorado, 25 Dec 1970, Steyermark et al. 104471 (BH, MO, NY); Sierra Pakaraima, headwaters of Río Paragua, 03°40'N,63°W, 1400 m, 4-5 May 1973, Steyemark 107354 (BH); Meseta del Jáua, Cerro Sarisariñama, 04°41 'N, 64°13'W, 13 Feb 1974, Steyermark et al. 109072 (BH, US); Meseta del Jáua, Cerro Jáua, 04°48'N, 64°34'W, 1750- 1800 m, 22-28 Feb 1974, Steyermark et al. 109523 (BH); Dist. Piar, Macizo del Chimantá., Amurí-tepui. 05°10'N, 62°07'W, ca. 1850 m, 2-5 Feb 1983, Steyermark et al 128499 (MO).
    GUYANA. Cuyuni- Mazaruni Region, Mt. Ayanganna, 05°25'N, 59°57'W, 11 Mar 1987, Pipoly 11155 (US); Partang River, Merume Mtn., SE ridge, 1140 m, 6 Jul 1960, Tillett et al. 44840 (NY).
    ECUADOR. PASTAZA: Moravia, 2 km W of Shell, 01°30'S, 78°03'W, 1050 m, 16 Mar 1983, Balslev & Brako 4281 (AAU, NY, QCA); 17 Mar 1983, Balslev & Brako 4285 (AAU, NY, QCA); ca. 12 km S of Puyo, 0 1°32'S, 78°02'W, 1000 m, 23 Mar 1987, Balslev et al. 62436 (COL, NY, QCA); Puyo-Palora rd., km 8, 01°32'S, 78°01'W, 940 m, 7 Oct 1991 , Bergmann & Borgtoft Pedersen 97857 (NY).
    BRAZIL. AMAZONA: N Massif of Serra Aracá, 00°51'N, 63°21'W, 1200 m, 13 Feb 1984, Amaral 1538 (NY); 14 Feb 1984, Prance et al. 29061 (NY); 1 Nov 1976, Rosa & Lima s.n. (MG); 22 Feb 1984, Tavares et al. 121 (INPA, NY). (Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson: Flora Neotropica, Monograph 72)B

Bibliography

    A. Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador
    B. Gloria Galeano & A. Henderson: Flora Neotropica, Monograph 72