Bactris caryotifolia Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 106 (1826)

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Atlantic coastal forest of Brazil (Bahia, Espfrito Santo, Rio de Janeiro); lowland rain forest at 1-550 m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


  • Bactris caryotifolia is diagnosed by its wedge shaped, distally praemorse pinnae. The type specimen is somewhat problematic. A specimen at M (F neg. 18607) bears a label saying that it was collected by Poeppig in Peru, but because this species does not occur in Peru, this must be a mistake. Handwriting on the label indicates that Martius saw this specimen, and it may be the Beyrich specimen that he used to describe the species. I have decided, however, to designate a neotype in view of this doubt. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A

Common Name

  • Brazil: coqueirinho, tucum, tucumrabo-de-peixe (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


  • Stems cespitose, in small clumps, 1-1.5 m tall, 12 diam.
    Leaves 10-12; leaf spines solitary, scattered, yellowish brown, black at base and apex, terete or slightly flattened, to 5 cm long, on lateral surfaces of sheath, petiole, and rachis; sheath 11-15 cm long, sheath, petiole, and rachis often gray-tomentose; ocrea not seen; petiole 20-37 cm long; rachis 45-90 cm long; pinnae 11-13 per side, irregularly arranged in clusters of 2, spreading in different planes, wedge shaped, with praemorse apical margins, gray abaxially; middle pinnae 9-18 x 6-10.5 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 6-15 cm long, recurved, spiny or not spiny; prophyll 10-14 cm long; peduncular bract 15-20 cm long, densely gray-or brown tomentose and covered with black or yellow spines to 1.5 cm long; rachis 3.5-12 cm long; rachillae 4-7, 2-11 cm long, not seen at anthesis; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers to 3.5 mm long; sepal lobes to I mm long; petals to 3.5 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers to 4 mm long; calyx cupular, to 3.5 mm long; corolla cupular, to 3.5 mm long; staminodes present or absent; fruits 1-1.8 cm diam., globose to obovoid, purple-black; mesocarp juicy; endocarp turbinate, the sterile pores slightly displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers numerous, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with short, lobed calyx and longer, briefly lobed corolla, without staminodial ring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


    A. Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000