Bactris gastoniana Barb.Rodr., Vellosia 1: 40 (1888)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Brazil North present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
French Guiana present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Suriname present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)B
Central and eastern Amazon region in Suriname, French Guiana, and Brazil (Amapa, Amazonas, Pará). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


  • Lowland rain forest on terra firme, at 87-500 m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


  • Bactris gastoniana is diagnosed by its short stem, sigmoid, aristate, 8-11 pinnae per side, inflorescence with 1 rachilla, staminodial ring, and purple-black fruits. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A

Common Name

  • Brazil: marajá. French Guiana: anuya wili (Wayâpi). Suriname: hanaimaka, naimacca, tamutubë (Trio). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


  • Stems solitary or cespitose, subterranean or aerial and then 5-60 cm tall, 0.8-2 cm diam., covered with persistent, decaying leaf bases.
    Leaves 4-8; leaf spines widely scattered, black, terete, to 5 cm long, on sheath, petiole, and proximal part of rachis, sometimes absent; sheath 11-20 cm long, persistent, fibrous at apex, sheath, petiole and rachis brown-tomentose; ocrea to 10 cm long; petiole 40-75 cm long; rachis 45-55 cm long; pinnae 8-11 per side, irregularly arranged in clusters of 2-4, spreading in different planes or more or less in the same plane, sigmoid, aristate, minutely spiny on the margins; middle pinnae 19-28 x 2.5-4 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 13-20 cm long, straight, spiny or not spiny; prophyll 9-12 cm long; peduncular bract 16-25 cm long, densely covered with black or brown spines to 1.5 cm long, glabrescent; rachis absent; rachilla 1, 3-4 cm long; triads regularly arranged; staminate flowers to 1 cm long, persistent; sepal lobes to 1.5 cm long; petals to 1 cm long; stamens not seen; pistillate flowers to 6 mm long; calyx urceolate, to 3 mm long; corolla urceolate, to 6 mm long, spinulose; staminodial ring adnate to corolla; fruits 2.5-3 x 1.5-2 cm, densely crowded, ellipsoid or widely ovoid, purple-black; mesocarp juicy; endocarp ellipsoid, the sterile pores displaced longitudinally, the fertile pore displaced latitudinally; endocarp fibers free, numerous, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with small calyx and tubular, many-lobed corolla, with staminodial ring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


    A. Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000
    B. World Checklist of Arecaceae