Bactris glandulosa Oerst., Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. Foren. Kjøbenhavn 1858: 184 (1859)

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Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia. Lowland to montane forest, usually below 1000 m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


  • Bactris glandulosa is diagnosed by its densely hirsute peduncular bract with fine, soft to stiff, black spines and golden hairs, and (24-)40-50 filamentous rachillae that are 5-11 cm long. See de Nevers et al. (1996) for a discussion of the application of this name and priority of the binomials Bactrisfusca and B. glandulosa. Two forms of this species occur, often together. Here I recognize these two forms as varieties, following de Nevers et al. (1996). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


  • Stems solitary or cespitose, 1.5-5 m tall, 2-4.5 cm diam., spiny.
    Leaves 4-6; leaf spines scattered, black or yellowish brown, terete, to 5 cm long, dense on sheath, fewer on lateral surfaces of petiole and abaxial surface of rachis, or absent from petiole and rachis; sheath 26-86 cm long; ocrea not seen; petiole (8) 16-80 cm long; rachis (0.4)1-1.7 m long; pinnae 14-29 per side (or occasionally leaf simple), irregularly arranged in clusters of 2-7, spreading in different planes, linear to elliptic, both surfaces (or sometimes only abaxially) bearing a fine, short, golden pubescence; middle pinnae 30-60 x 3-7 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 8-13 cm long, recurved, spiny; prophyll 8-16 cm; peduncular bract 15-30 cm long, densely hirsute with fine, soft to stiff, black spines and golden hairs; rachis 3-6 cm long; rachillae (24-)40-50, 5-11 cm long, filamentous, at anthesis densely covered with brownish or whitish moniliform trichomes and other trichomes; triads more or less regularly arranged (but often with solitary staminate flowers interspersed) on proximal ca. half or more of rachillae, and there tending to be absent from adaxial side of rachillae (paired or solitary staminate flowers only on distal ca. half of rachillae); staminate flowers 3.5-4 mm long, persistent; sepal lobes 0.5-1 mm long; petals 3.5-4 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers to 4 mm long; calyx cupular, to 1.5 mm long; corolla tubular, to 3 mm long, usually pubescent and spinulose, rarely glabrescent; staminodes absent;fruits 0.5-1.7 cm diam., obovoid, red; mesocarp starchy; endocarp turbinate, black or white, the pores more or less equidistant or sterile pores displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers absent; fruiting perianth with minute calyx and irregularly lobed corolla, without staminodial ring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A

Use Record

  • Bactris bifida Oerst.: Bactris bifida is one of at least seven wild species in the genus with edible fruits that grow in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve. (Smith, N., R. Vásquez, and W. H. Wust 2007: Amazon river fruits. Flavors for Conservation (as Bactris bifida Oerst.))
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
    Human FoodBeveragesFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru
  • Bactris bifida Oerst.: Bactris bifida Mart. Español: Nejilla, Neja negra Usos: Alimenticio — Los frutos maduros son comestibles. Comunidad: 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 12–16, 18–21, 23–27. Voucher: H. Balslev 6604. (Balslev, H., C. Grandez, et al. 2008: Useful palms (Arecaceae) near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon (as Bactris bifida Oerst.))


    A. Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000