Bactris turbinocarpa Barb.Rodr., Enum. Palm. Nov. : 33 (1875)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Brazil North present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Suriname present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Northeastern Amazon region in Suriname and Brazil (Pará), lowland rain forest on terra firme at low elevations.


  • Bactris turbinocarpa is diagnosed by its obovoid, prominently rostrate fruits, 2.5-3.5 x 1.5-2 cm that are densely brown-tomentose and covered with short spinules. This species is rare, and seldom collected. It is known from only two localities, one in Suriname and one in Brazil, at least 500 km apart. A specimen from a third locality (Brazil. Amazonas: Rio Jutaí, 3 Feb 1875 Trail 832/CLXVII (K)), determined by Trail as B. trichospatha, is similar to B. turbinocarpa, but is not included above. The fruits are much smaller than the other specimens and I am unable to determine to which species it belongs.
    Trail (1877) considered that the fruiting corolla of this species had a staminodial ring, and based on this Burret (1933-34) transferred the species to Pyrenoglyphis. However, no staminodial ring appears to be present. The apical part of the corolla is spinulose internally, which is unusual in Bactris.


  • Stems cespitose, 1-1.7 m tall, 2-2.5 cm diam., with few spines on internodes. Leaves 6-13; leaf spines scattered, black, to 9 cm long, few on sheath and petiole; sheath 19-24 cm long, sheath, petiole, and rachis densely reddish brown-velutinous; ocrea not seen; petiole 50-57 cm long; rachis 0.7-1 m long; pinnae 15-22 per side, regularly arranged, spreading in the same plane, linear-lanceolate, aristate, sparsely tomentose abaxially, cross-veins evident; middle pinnae 36-45 x 2.5-4 cm. Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 22-30 cm long, recurved, densely brown-tomentose; prophyll 15-20 cm long; peduncular bract 30-45 cm long, densely covered with appressed, black and brown spines to 1 cm long; rachis 3-5 cm long; rachillae 8-12, 6-12 cm long, at anthesis densely covered with whitish and brownish, moniliform trichomes; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; flowers not seen; fruits 2.5-3.5 x 1.5-2 cm, obovoid, prominently rostrate, densely brown-tomentose, covered with short spinules; mesocarp juicy; endocarp turbinate, the sterile pores displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers numerous, free, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with deeply lobed, spinulose calyx and longer, briefly lobed, spinulose corolla, this spinulose internally, without staminodial ring.


    A. World Checklist of Arecaceae