Bactris setosa Mart., Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 94 (1826)

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Map uses TDWG level 3 distributions (
Brazil Northeast present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Brazil South present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Brazil Southeast present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Brazil West-Central present (World Checklist of Arecaceae)A
Atlantic coastal rain forest of Brazil and adjacent areas (Bahia, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Paraná, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, São Paulo).


  • Low, open, swampy areas, often occurring in standing water, at 50-300 m elevation.


  • Bactris setosa is diagnosed by its somewhat flattened, brownish or yellowish leaf spines black at the base and apex and to 6 cm long, and its brown-tomentose peduncular bract 23-60 cm long, moderately covered with yellow to black spines to 1.1 cm long. Synonymy was established in part by Noblick (1991). The name B. tijucana Glaziou was used by Dahlgren (1959, pl. 74), but was not validly published and, in any case, is based on the type of B. escragnollei. Bactris cuyabensis is also included here as a synonym, although the localities given (Rio Paraguai, Rio São Louren?o, Rio Cuyabá, Corrego das Areas de São Miguel) are somewhat outside the known range of the species. Specimens from further inland, in Goiás and Minas Gerais, appear to have broader pinnae and more closely bunched fruits than those from areas nearer the coast.

Common Name

  • Brazil: mané véio, mané velho, tucum, tucum branco, tucum de brejo.


  • Stems cespitose, forming large clumps, 1.5-6 m tall, 3-4 cm diam., densely spiny on internodes. Leaves 2-5; leaf spines scattered or tending to be clustered, somewhat flattened, brownish or yellowish and black at the base and apex, to 6 cm long, on sheath, lateral surfaces of petiole, and abaxial surface of rachis; sheath 20-30 cm long, fibrous on the margins, sheath, petiole, and rachis brown-tomentose; ocrea to 30 cm long; petiole 0.2-1.1 m long; rachis 0.7-1.5 m long; pinnae 30-57 per side, regularly arranged but with gaps, spreading in different planes, linear to linear-lanceolate, asymmetrically and briefly bifid subapically, spinulose along the margins; middle pinnae 30-60 x 2-3.7(-4.5) cm. Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 13-33 cm long, recurved, not spiny; prophyll 10-22 cm long; peduncular bract 23-60 cm long, brown-tomentose, moderately covered with yellow to black spines to 1.1 cm long; rachis 9-20 cm long; rachillae 12-27, 4-14 cm long, at anthesis densely covered with moniliform trichomes; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers 4.5-6 mm long; sepal lobes 1.5-2 mm long; petals 4.5-6 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers 5.5-6 mm long; calyx cupular, 1-2 mm long; corolla urceolate, 5-5.5 mm long; staminodes 6; fruits 1.5-2 cm diam., depressed-globose, purple-black; mesocarp juicy; endocarp depressed-oblong, the sterile pores markedly displaced longitudinally to one end; endocarp fibers numerous, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with 3-lobed calyx and longer, entire or irregularly split-margined corolla, without staminodial ring.


    A. World Checklist of Arecaceae