Bactris martiana A.J.Hend., Fl. Neotrop. Monogr. 79: 120 (2000)

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Colombia (Amazonas), Ecuador (Napo, Sucumbíos), Peru (Cusco, Loreto, Madre de Dios), and Brazil (Acre, Amazonas); margins of larger rivers in lowland forest, at 106-300 m elevation. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


  • Bactris martiana is diagnosed by its 46-60 pinnae per side, regularly arranged, spreading in the same plane, linear or linear-lanceolate, and 45-70 x 2-3 cm, pistillate flowers with a staminodial ring, and congested, irregularly and narrowly obovoid, purple black fruits 3.5- 5.5 x 2- 2.5 cm. Henderson (1995) recognized a broadly conceived B. concinna, with three varieties, of which this one was called Baetris concinna var. concinna. Here these are recognized at the specific level. This species is named for Carl von Martius, pre eminent student of palms. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A


  • Stems cespitose, forming small or large clumps, to 8 m tall, 3-5 cm diam., erect or often leaning, spiny on internodes.
    Leaves 3-10; leaf spines black or brownish, terete, to 10 cm long, dense on sheath, petiole, and rachis; sheath 18-S0 cm long, fibrous on margins; ocrea to 30 cm long; petiole 12-74 cm long; rachis 0.9-3 m long; pinnae 46-60 per side, regularly arranged, spreading in the same plane, linear or linear lanceolate, with small spines on margins, with a metallic sheen on drying; middle pinnae 45-70 x 2-3 cm.
    Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 14-30 cm long, recurved, flattened, not spiny; prophyll 10-22 cm long; peduncular bract 20-40 cm long, moderately covered with black spines to 1.5 cm long; rachis absent; rachilla 1, 12-20 cm long, at athesis glabrous; triads regularly arranged; staminate flowers 7-10 mm long, persistent; sepal lobes 2.5-4 mm long; petals 7-10 mm long; stamens 6-10; pistillode small or absent; pistillate flowers to 6 mm long; calyx cupular, to 1 mm long; corolla tubular, to 5 mm long; staminodial ring free from the corolla, to 3.5 mm long; fruits 3.5- 5.5 x 2-2.5 cm, congested, irregularly and narrowly obovoid, purple-black, sometimes minutely spinulose; mesocarp juicy; endocarp obovoid,the fertile pore displaced longitudinally and latitudinally; endocarp fibers free, numerous, with juicesacs attached; fruiting perianth with small, lobed calyx and much longer, scarcely lobed corolla, with prominent staminodial ring. (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A

Materials Examined

  • COLOMBIA. AMAZONAS: La Pedrera, 10 Oct 1952, Garda Barriga 14819 (COL).
    ECUADOR. NAPO: Añangu on the Río Napo, 0°32'S, 76°23'W, 300 m, 1-5 Mar 1983, Balslev 4264 (NY), 28 Jul 1985, Balslev et al. 60693 (AAU, CAY, NY); San Pueblode los Secoyas on Río Aguarico, 0°18'S, 76°20'W, 300 m, 19 Feb 1984, Balslev 4858 (NY).
    SUCUMBÍOS: Cuyabeno, 0°27'S, 75°30'W, 1 Oct 1991, Palacios et al. 8012 (MOl).
    PERU. CUSCO: Quispicanchi, Quincemil to San Lorenzo, 11 Jun 1960, Moore et al. 8579 (BH). LORETO: Prov. Maynas, Padre Isla, 14 Jan 1985, F. Ayala 4363 (AMAZ), 11 Sep 1995, Henderson & Padilla 2019 (NY); Provo Alto Amazonas, Río Pastaza, one hour above mouth of Lago Rimachi, 4°20'S, 76°35'W, ca. 200 m, 25 Jan 1979. C. Díaz & Ruiz 921 (BH, NY); Prov. Alto Amazonas, a few km W of Shucushayacu on Río Huallaga above Yurimaguas. 6°1'S, 75°55'W, 180m,11 Oct 1985, Gentry et al. 52224 (F,MO, NY); between Napo and Amazonas, Timicuro to Mazan, 16 May 1960, Moore et al. 8473 (B H); Prov. Requena, Río Ucayali, Santa Delia, 19 Jul 1982, K. Mejía 57 (USM); Prov. Maynas, Caserío Nueva Jerusalén, Isla Iquitos, 3°45'S, 73°15'W, 106 m, 12 Jan 1989, Vasquez & Jaramillo 11525 (MO, NY).
    MADRE DE DIOS: Tambopata, 12°50'S, 69°17?W, 20 Jun 1991, Cávez 748 (CUZ), 29 Oct 1988, Núñez et al. 9974 (NY); 11°53'S, 71°23'W, 5 Sep 1986, R. Foster 11288 (F); Manu National Park, Cocha Cashu, 21 Oct 1979, Gentry et al. 27123 (F, MO); Cusco Amazónico, 12°29'S, 69°3'W, 23 Jan 1991, Timana et al. 1334 (MO), 31 Jan 1991, Timana et al.1444 (MO).
    BRAZIL. ACRE: Rio Juruá, above Cruzeiro do Sul , near Natal, 8°20'S, 72°15'W, 7 Feb 1992, Henderson et al. 1654 (lNPA, K, NY).
    AMAZONAS: Ilha Aramaca, opposite Tabatinga, 23 Jul 1973, Prance et al. 16725 (BH, NY). (Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000)A

Use Record

  • Bactris martiana A.J.Hend.: The mesocarp, known locally as carne (meat) in the Pacaya-Samiria National Reserve, has an intriguing flavor because it is sweet, but with a hint of tartness. (Smith, N., R. Vásquez, and W. H. Wust 2007: Amazon river fruits. Flavors for Conservation)
    Use CategoryUse Sub CategoryPlant PartHuman GroupEthnic GroupCountry
    Human FoodFoodFruitsNot identifiedN/APeru


    A. Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000